1.Modulation of dragon's blood on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons and identification of its material basis for efficacy.
Liu X1, Chen S, Zhang Y, Zhang F. Sci China C Life Sci. 2006 Jun;49(3):274-85.
To clarify the modulation of dragon's blood on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and explore its corresponding material basis for the efficacy, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and the combined effects of three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from dragon's blood on the TTX-R sodium currents in acute-isolated DRG neurons of rats were observed. According to the operational definition of material basis for the efficacy of TCM established, the material basis of the modulation on the TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons of dragon's blood was judged from the experimental results. The drug interaction equation of Greco et al. was used to assess the interaction of the three components extracted from dragon's blood. This investigation demonstrated that dragon's blood suppressed the peak TTX-R sodium currents in a dose-dependent way and affected the activations of TTX-R sodium currents.
2.A systematic review of the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a plant source of the ethnomedicine "dragon's blood".
Fan JY1, Yi T2, Sze-To CM1, Zhu L1, Peng WL1, Zhang YZ1, Zhao ZZ1, Chen HB3. Molecules. 2014 Jul 22;19(7):10650-69. doi: 10.3390/molecules190710650.
"Dragon's blood" is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of "dragon's blood". It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol.
3.Material basis for inhibition of Dragon's Blood on evoked discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn of rats.
Guo M1, Chen S, Liu X. Sci China C Life Sci. 2008 Nov;51(11):1025-38. doi: 10.1007/s11427-008-0133-6. Epub 2008 Nov 7.
In vivo experiments were designed to verify the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood and the material basis for this effect. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were used to observe the effects of Dragon's Blood and various combinations of the three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from Dragon's Blood on the discharge activities of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of intact male Wistar rats evoked by electric stimulation at sciatic nerve. When the Hill's coefficients describing the dose-response relations of drugs were different, based on the concept of dose equivalence, the equations of additivity surfaces which can be applied to assess the interaction between three drugs were derived. Adopting the equations and Tallarida's isobole equations used to assess the interaction between two drugs with dissimilar dose-response relations, the effects produced by various combinations of the three components in modulating the evoked discharge activities of WDR neurons were evaluated.
4.Comparison between loureirin A and cochinchinenin C on the interaction with human serum albumin.
Chen X1, Qian K2, Chen Q3. Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Mar 26;93:492-500. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.02.025. Epub 2015 Feb 24.
The interactions of loureirin A (LA) and cochinchinenin C (CC) with human serum albumin (HSA) under simulated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4) have been studied with fluorescence, UV-vis absorption spectroscopic method and molecular docking technique. The results indicated that there was a synergistic interaction between LA and CC, and the fluorescence quenching of HSA by LA (or CC) was a combined quenching procedure (dynamic and static quenching). At low compound concentrations, the quenching constants KSV of CC was larger than that of LA, which meant the CC efficacy may be better than that of LA. The negative △H and △S values suggested hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played the major role in the binding of LA (or CC) to HSA. The efficiency of energy transfer and distance between the compounds and HSA was calculated. Moreover, the results of synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence demonstrated that the HSA microenvironment was changed in the presence of LA (or CC).