1. Rapid screening of clenbuterol hydrochloride in chicken samples by molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with liquid chromatography
Fengxia Qiaoa*,Jingjing Du. Journal of Chromatography B, 923-924 (2013) 136-140
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (4-amino-3,5-dichloro-a-tert-butylaminomethylbenzyl alcohol hydrochloride, CH), a representative of the class of beta-adrenergic agents, had been used as a tocolytic, bronchodilator, and heart tonics in human and veterinary medicine. It also possessed physiological effects similar to anabolic steroids, which promoted the growth of the muscular tissue and reduction of body fat. As a consequence, it was extensively used in various animal species as a repartitioningagent to decrease fat deposition with enhanced protein accumulation when administered orally at high doses. However, its long term or high dose misuse had led to serious side effects and it was prohibited to use as growth promoter for livestock in the Spain, Italy, China, and many other countries. Therefore, a simple, accurate and reliable method for the determination of trace levels of CH in meat products was desired for the assurance of consumer healthy.
2. Studies on binding interactions between clenbuterol hydrochloride and two serum albumins by multispectroscopic approaches in vitro
Qin Wang*, Shengrui Zhang. Luminescence 2014; 29: 492–499
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CL) is a type of β2-adrenergic agonist. It can elicit a muscle-directed protein anabolic response in young lambs, broiler chickens, rats and horses. Speciﬁcally, CL can increase muscle mass while simultaneously decreasing fat mass. CL has been used in veterinary medicine as a bronchodilator and a tocolytic agent for bovine and equine species. However, CL has been used illegally in livestock to take advantage of its anabolic effect and reduction of body fat, which has important implications in several health issues in human. Residues of the CL in food-producing animals have caused toxic effects in humans consuming contaminated liver or meat, and various intoxications have been described as being due to the ingestion of liver and meat containing CL residues in Spain, France, Italy and Portugal. The associated harmful effects of CL in humans makes the control of such veterinary drug residues an important measure in food safety, and all uses of hormones for improving growth in animals is forbidden in the EU. However, the illegal use of CL to promote animal growth still exists and raises new concerns about its safety/toxicity, particularly regarding consumers
3. Multiwalled carbon nanotube-4-tert-butyl calixarene composite electrochemical sensor for clenbuterol hydrochloride determination by means of differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry
Reena R. Gaichore • Ashwini K. Srivastava. J Appl Electrochem (2012) 42:979–987
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB), a b-agonist cardiovascular drug, is known for stimulating β-receptors reducing stress symptoms and asthma and has been extensively used in the treatment of human depression and pulmonary disease. The high levels of this drug in the human body may lead to muscular tremor, heart throb, glaucoma, prostatitis, and even death in aged people. Thus, the determination of CLB in human body ﬂuids is of immense importance.