Carbohydrates, Nucleosides & Nucleotides

Background


BOC Sciences provides customers with top quality carbohydratesnucleosides and nucleotides. Our products range includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, nucleosides, nucleotides and their modified analogs.

Carbohydrates are the primary class for the biopolymers and present the greatest structural diversity of the biopolymers. Earlier the name "carbohydrate" was initially used to describe compounds that were literally "hydrates of carbon" because they usually had the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n, in another word, with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). In recent years, carbohydrates have been classified according to the degree of polymerization and the characteristics of the majority of carbohydrates found in the diet. Carbohydrates can be divided initially into three principal groups: sugars, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. At the same time, based on the physiological properties, the carbohydrates can be classified as digestible or non-digestible.

Sugars include monosaccharides, disaccharides and Polyols. Monosaccharides or simple sugars, the simplest form of carbohydrates, consist of one sugar unit that cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates. On the basis of whether they are aldehydes or ketones they are subdivided into two classes: aldoses and ketoses. Examples of monosaccharides in foods are glucose, fructose and galactose. Disaccharides are carbohydrates made by linking two monosaccharides. Disaccharides, along with monosaccharides, are called simple carbohydrates. The most common monosaccharides are glucose, galactose, and fructose. The polyol and amine containing monosaccharides project functionality in diverse stereochemical arrays due to the greatest structural diversity.

Oligosaccharides, divided into Malto-oligosaccharides (ɑ-glucans) and Non-ɑ-glucan (nondigestible oligosaccharides), are saccharide polymers composed of 3 and 10 sugar moieties. In contrast to peptides and nucleic acids, the oligosaccharides branch in a myriad of directions occupying a vast three-dimensional space. Oligosaccharide linked together mostly by O-glycosidic bond. The biological roles of oligosaccharides appear to span the spectrum from those that are trivial, to those that are crucial for the development, growth, function or survival of an organism. Oligosaccharides are functional food ingredients that have great potential to improve the quality of many foods. Besides, many of these compounds possess properties that are benefcial to the health of consumers.

Nucleosides and nucleotides are endogenous compounds involved in several cellular processes such as DNA and RNA synthesis, cell signalling, enzyme regulation and metabolism. A nucleoside is a glycosylamine that consists of a nitrogenous base covalently attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) but without the phosphate group. In the most important nucleosides, the sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose, and the nitrogen-containing compound is either a pyrimidine or a purine. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and one to three phosphate groups. As structural units of nucleic acids, nucleosides take part in the molecular mechanisms of conservation, replication and transcription of the genetic information.

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are synthetic, chemically modified compounds that constitute an important class of antiviral drugs, and are also used in the treatment of hematological malignancies and, more recently, in solid tumors. Nucleos(t)ide analogues have been developed to mimic their physiological counterparts in accordance with uptake and metabolism and are incorporated into newly synthesized DNA resulting in synthesis inhibition and chain termination. This action has potential therapeutic benefits, for instance, in the inhibition of cancer cell growth, the inhibition of viral replication as well as other indications.

The nucleoside analogues family consist of various pyrimidine and purine analogues. Among the pyrimidine analogues, cytosine arabinoside is widely used to treat acute leukemia, while gemcitabine has showed activity in pancreatic, breast and lung cancer recently.

Besides their important role in the treatment regimens for various malignancies and virology, some nucleoside and nucleotide analogues have been also used in various other indications. Such as Allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine, is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and has been used to treat chronic hyperuricaemia.

References:

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Mike Martin Kwabena Boysen. (2013). Carbohydrates—Tools for Stereoselective Synthesis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52, 2.

Susan J. Shepherd , BAppSci, MND, PhD1 , Miranda C.E. Lomer , RD, PhD2 and Peter R. Gibson , MD, FRACP3. (2013). Short-Chain Carbohydrates and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 108, 707–717.

Solange I. Mussatto, Ismael M. Mancilha. (2006). Non-digestible oligosaccharides: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers. 68, 587–597.

Lars Petter Jordheim1,2, David Durantel3, Fabien Zoulim2,3 and Charles Dumontet1,2. (2013). Nat Rev Drug Discov. 12(6), 447-64.

C. Périgaud, G. Gosselin & J. L. Imbach. (1991). Nucleoside Analogues as Chemotherapeutic Agents: A Review. Nucleosides and Nucleotides. 11, 2-4.