BUTYL LEVULINATE - CAS 2052-15-5
Category:
Flavor & Fragrance
Product Name:
BUTYL LEVULINATE
Synonyms:
BUTYL LEVULINATE, Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-, butyl ester
CAS Number:
2052-15-5
Molecular Weight:
172.23
Molecular Formula:
C9H16O3
COA:
Inquire
MSDS:
Inquire
Olfactive Family:
Fatty | Waxy
FEMA:
2207
Odor description:
An herbaceous, waxy, fatty odor with savory applications.
Chemical Structure
CAS 2052-15-5 BUTYL LEVULINATE

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Reference Reading


1.Preparation and Baeyer-Villiger Reaction of certain 2-carbalkoxycyclopropyl methyl ketones.
Cannon JG, Garst JE. J Pharm Sci. 1975 Jun;64(6):1059-61.
Treatment of mixed anhydrides derived from cis- and trans-2-carbobenzyloxycyclopropanecarboxylic acids and ethyl chloroformate with ethoxymagnesio di-tert-butyl malonate and subsequent treatment of the resulting adducts with p-toluenesulfonic acid afforded cis- and trans-benzyl-2-acetylcyclopropanecarboxylates in good to excellent yields, with retention of the original stereochemistry of the systems. These methyl ketones and an open chain congener, benzyl levulinate, were inert toward m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The cis-isomer and benzyl levulinate underwent normal Baeyer-Villiger reactions mediated by trifluoroperacetic acid, forming moderate yields of the acetate ester insertion products.
2.Conversion of biomass-derived levulinate and formate esters into γ-valerolactone over supported gold catalysts.
Du XL1, Bi QY, Liu YM, Cao Y, Fan KN. ChemSusChem. 2011 Dec 16;4(12):1838-43. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201100483. Epub 2011 Nov 22.
The utilization of biomass has recently attracted tremendous attention as a potential alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid fuels and chemicals. We report an efficient alcohol-mediated reactive extraction strategy by which a hydrophobic mixture of butyl levulinate and formate esters, derived from cellulosic biomass, can be converted to valuable γ-valerolactone (GVL) by a simple supported gold catalyst system without need of an external hydrogen source. The essential role of the supported gold is to facilitate the rapid and selective decomposition of butyl formate to produce a hydrogen stream, which enables the highly effective reduction of butyl levulinate into GVL. This protocol simplifies the recovery and recycling of sulfuric acid, which is used for cellulose deconstruction.
3.Enhanced heterogeneous catalytic conversion of furfuryl alcohol into butyl levulinate.
Demma Carà P1, Ciriminna R, Shiju NR, Rothenberg G, Pagliaro M. ChemSusChem. 2014 Mar;7(3):835-40. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201301027. Epub 2014 Feb 12.
We study the catalytic condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to butyl levulinate. A screening of several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts shows that propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica outperforms the state-of-the-art phosphotungstate acid catalysts. The catalyst is prepared via template-assisted sol-gel polycondensation of TEOS and MPTMS. It gives 96 % yield (and 100 % selectivity) of butyl levulinate in 4 h at 110 °C. Reaction profiles before and after a hot filtration test confirm that the active catalytic species do not leach into the solution. The catalyst synthesis, characterization, and mode of operation are presented and discussed.
4.Ecotoxicity studies of the levulinate ester series.
Lomba L1, Muñiz S, Pino MR, Navarro E, Giner B. Ecotoxicology. 2014 Oct;23(8):1484-93. doi: 10.1007/s10646-014-1290-y. Epub 2014 Aug 1.
The increasing interest in the development of novel green solvents has led to the synthesis of benign alternative products with minimized environmental impacts. However, most of published studies on green solvents focus primarily on their physicochemical properties, with limited emphasis on absence of ecotoxicological assessment. In this study, we evaluated the acute ecotoxicity of four levulinates (levulinic acid, methyl levulinate, ethyl levulinate and butyl levulinate) on freshwater algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), daphnids (Daphnia magna) and earthworms (Eisenia foetida) using various dose-response tests. As a general trend, the toxicity of levulinate esters in aquatic exposure (assessed as the EC50) increased as a function of increasing alkyl chain length; accordingly, the most toxic compound for the aquatic organisms was butyl levulinate, followed by ethyl levulinate and methyl levulinate. The most toxic compound for E.