1.The development of drug-resistant strains of Eimeria maxima in the laboratory.
Norton CC, Joyner LP. Parasitology. 1975 Aug;71(1):153-65.
The development of strains of Eimeria maxima resistant to buquinolate, methyl benzoquate, clopidol, sulphaquinoxaline and robenidine is described. It was not possible to standardize a schedule of inoculations and drug administration, which would enable the development of resistance to the different drugs to be compared directly. Resistance developed most readily to the quinolones. One robenidine-resistant strain proved to be drug-dependent. Dinitolmide showed unusual effects upon sporogony and three attempts to develop resistance against this activity failed. Chicks previously immunized with the parent strain were completely protected against infection with the drug-resistant strains.
2.The short-term toxicity of some feed additives to different freshwater organisms.
Canton JH, van Esch GJ. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1976 Jun;15(6):720-5.
The short-term toxicity (EC50 respectively LC50 after 2 or 4 days) of 13 feed additives was determined to 4 freshwater organisms of different trophical levels: Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Daphnia magna, Lebistes reticulatus and Salmo gairdneri. The most toxic (LC(EC)50 less than 1 mg/1) were robenidine (to all tested organisms) and stenorol (to Daphnia); moderately toxic (1 less than LC(EC)50 less than 10 mg/1) was pyrimethamine. Amprolium, ethopabate, furazolidone and zoalene proved to be little toxic (LC(EC)50 greater than 10 mg/1); whereas buquinolate, carbadox, clopidol, decoquinate, grofas and sulfaquinoxaline were under the experimental conditions not toxic for the tested organisms.
3.Eimeria tenella in chickens: development of resistance to quinolone anticoccidial drugs.
Chapman HD. Parasitology. 1975 Aug;71(1):41-9.
The development of drug resistance by the present Houghton strain of Eimeria tenella to the quinolones, methyl benzoquate and buquinolate, was found to take place after a single experimental passage. The development of resistance was independent of drug selection pressure and showed cross resistance to other quinolones, but not to amprolium and robenidine. When the Weybridge, Beltsville and Elberfeld strains of E. tenella were compared under similar laboratory conditions, the Weybridge and Elberfeld strains developed resistance to methyl benzoquate after 6 passages and the Beltsville after 5. Studies on the response of the Houghton strain to methyl benzoquate and buquinolate revealed that the drugs did not completely control the infection as measured by weight gain and that oocyst production was not suppressed. These observations indicate that the strain had already acquired some resistance to these drugs. This was confirmed by examining the resistance to methyl benzoquate of a culture of the Houghton strain of E.