1.Effect of α7n-Acetylcholine Receptor Activation and Antibodies to TNF-α on Mortality of Mice and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines During Early Stage of Sepsis.
Zabrodskii PF1, Gromov MS2, Maslyakov VV2. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015 Oct;159(6):740-2. doi: 10.1007/s10517-015-3063-x. Epub 2015 Nov 3.
Experiments on random-bred albino mice showed that activation α7n-acetylcholine receptors with anabasine (0.5 LD50) and the use of antibodies to TNF-α (1 mg/kg) 2 h before sepsis modeling significantly reduces mortality of mice from experimental sepsis (intraperitoneal injection of E. coli) due to a decrease in the blood concentration of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. After combined administration of anti-TNF-α antibodies and anabasine, an additive effect was observed.
2.An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.
van der Zee R1, Gray A2, Pisa L1, de Rijk T3. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 8;10(7):e0131611. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131611. eCollection 2015.
This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset.
3.Effects of MAO inhibition and a combination of minor alkaloids, β-carbolines, and acetaldehyde on nicotine self-administration in adult male rats.
Smith TT1, Schaff MB2, Rupprecht LE2, Schassburger RL2, Buffalari DM2, Murphy SE3, Sved AF4, Donny EC5. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Oct 1;155:243-52. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 13.
INTRODUCTION: Although nicotine is the primary reinforcing constituent in cigarettes, there is evidence that other constituents in cigarette smoke may interact with nicotine to reinforce smoking behavior.
4.Testing Dose-Dependent Effects of the Nectar Alkaloid Anabasine on Trypanosome Parasite Loads in Adult Bumble Bees.
Anthony WE1, Palmer-Young EC1, Leonard AS1, Irwin RE2,3, Adler LS1. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 6;10(11):e0142496. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142496. eCollection 2015.
The impact of consuming biologically active compounds is often dose-dependent, where small quantities can be medicinal while larger doses are toxic. The consumption of plant secondary compounds can be toxic to herbivores in large doses, but can also improve survival in parasitized herbivores. In addition, recent studies have found that consuming nectar secondary compounds may decrease parasite loads in pollinators. However, the effect of compound dose on bee survival and parasite loads has not been assessed. To determine how secondary compound consumption affects survival and pathogen load in Bombus impatiens, we manipulated the presence of a common gut parasite, Crithidia bombi, and dietary concentration of anabasine, a nectar alkaloid produced by Nicotiana spp. using four concentrations naturally observed in floral nectar. We hypothesized that increased consumption of secondary compounds at concentrations found in nature would decrease survival of uninfected bees, but improve survival and ameliorate parasite loads in infected bees.