1.A photo-cured coated-wire calcium ion selective electrode for use in flow injection potentiometry.
Alexander PW1, Dimitrakopoulos T, Hibbert DB. Talanta. 1997 Aug;44(8):1397-405.
A multi-sensor cell containing a new photo-cured calcium ion selective electrode sensor is reported. Four membranes containing different components are prepared to determine the one with optimum selectivity and sensitivity. This is shown to consist of the N,N,N',N'-tetracyclohexyl-3-oxapentanediamide ligand (ETH 129) as the ionophore, 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as the plasticiser and tetradodecyl ammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate as the lipophilic additive. The photo-curing process is applied after coating a thin membrane on a silver wire as substrate transducer to produce the calcium sensor. The curing process is demonstrated to be faster (1 min) than previous methods and does not require a nitrogen atmosphere for reproducible production of membrane response characteristics. Four sensors constructed with the identical optimum membrane are shown to function reproducibly in a multi-sensor flow-through cell using the steady-state mode of flow measurement, and an average calibration slope of 28.
2.Quartz crystal microbalance sensor using ionophore for ammonium ion detection.
Kosaki Y1, Takano K, Citterio D, Suzuki K, Shiratori S. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012 Jan;12(1):563-7.
Ionophore-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) ammonium ion sensors with a detection limit for ammonium ion concentrations as low as 2.2 microM were fabricated. Ionophores are molecules, which selectively bind a particular ion. In this study, one of the known ionophores for ammonium, nonactin, was used to detect ammonium ions for environmental in-situ monitoring of aquarium water for the first time. To fabricate the sensing films, poly(vinyl chloride) was used as the matrix for the immobilization of nonactin. Furthermore, the anionic additive, tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate potassium salt and the plasticizer dioctyl sebacate were used to enhance the sensor properties. The sensor allowed detecting ammonium ions not only in static solution, but also in flowing water. The sensor showed a nearly linear response with the increase of the ammonium ion concentration. The QCM resonance frequency increased with the increase of ammonium ion concentration, suggesting a decreasing weight of the sensing film.
3.Measuring quaternary ammonium cleaning agents with ion selective electrodes.
Plesha MA1, Van Wie BJ, Mullin JM, Kidwell DA. Anal Chim Acta. 2006 Jun 16;570(2):186-94. Epub 2006 Jun 2.
Data for coated-wire, ion selective electrodes (ISEs) are presented for cationic surfactant ions found in common cleaners including benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium. The ion exchangers dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid, tetraphenyborate, and tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate are examined, showing dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid to be the favored species. The ISEs exhibit approximately Nernstian behavior down to the 10(-6) M limit of detection with lifetimes in excess of 50 days when used continuously, and a shelf life of over 100 days. Reaching the upper detection limit at the critical micelle concentration requires use of polymeric-membrane reference electrodes including a new membrane cocktail, which allow response measurements of an order of magnitude higher than the traditional fritted-glass reference electrode. The surfactant ISEs show excellent selectivity over the common metal ions Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cu2+ with selectivity coefficients less than 10(-5.
4.Comparative study of 2-hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin and calixarene as ionophores in potentiometric ion-selective electrodes for neostigmine bromide.
El-Kosasy AM1, Nebsen M, Abd El-Rahman MK, Salem MY, El-Bardicy MG. Talanta. 2011 Aug 15;85(2):913-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.04.071. Epub 2011 May 6.
Three novel neostigmine bromide (NEO) selective electrodes were investigated with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as a plasticiser in a polymeric matrix of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Sensor 1 was fabricated using tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate (TpClPB) as an anionic exchanger without incorporation of an ionophore. Sensor 2 used 2-hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin as an ionophore while sensor 3 was constructed using 4-sulfocalix-8-arene as an ionophore. Linear responses of NEO within the concentration ranges of 10(-5) to 10(-2), 10(-6) to 10(-2) and 10(-7) to 10(-2) mol L(-1) were obtained using sensors 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Nernstian slopes of 51.6 ± 0.8, 52.9 ± 0.6 and 58.6 ± 0.4 mV/decade over the pH range of 4-9 were observed. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity for NEO. The utility of 2-hydroxy propyl β-cyclodextrin and 4-sulfocalixarene as ionophores had a significant influence on increasing the membrane sensitivity and selectivity of sensors 2 and 3 compared to sensor 1.