1.Dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides increases short-chain fatty acids but decreases protein-derived catabolites in the intestinal luminal content of weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets.
Zhou XL1, Kong XF2, Lian GQ3, Blachier F4, Geng MM3, Yin YL5. Nutr Res. 2014 Sep;34(9):780-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.08.008. Epub 2014 Aug 28.
The improvement of gut health and function with prebiotic supplements after weaning is an active area of research in pig nutrition. The present study was conducted to test the working hypothesis that medium-term dietary supplementation with soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) can affect the gut ecosystem in terms of microbiota composition, luminal bacterial short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and intestinal expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and barrier function. Ten Huanjiang mini-piglets, weaned at 21 days of age, were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Each group received a standard diet containing either dietary supplementation with 0.5% corn starch (control group) or 0.5% SBOS (experimental group). The results showed that dietary supplementation with SBOS increased the diversity of intestinal microflora and elevated (P < .05) the numbers of some presumably beneficial intestinal bacteria (e.g., Bifidobacterium sp, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Roseburia).
2.Influence of tannic acid application on alfalfa hay: in vitro rumen fermentation, serum metabolites and nitrogen balance in sheep.
Getachew G1, Pittroff W, Depeters EJ, Putnam DH, Dandekar A, Goyal S. Animal. 2008 Mar;2(3):381-90. doi: 10.1017/S1751731107001486.
Alfalfa protein is poorly utilised by ruminants due to its rapid degradation in rumen. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of spraying tannic acid (TA) on chopped alfalfa hay on in vitro rumen fermentation and nitrogen (N) retention by sheep. Alfalfa hay with and without TA was fed to sheep to determine nutrient digestibility and N balance. TA was sprayed on chopped alfalfa at three concentrations to determine its effect on in vitro fermentation of dry matter (DM) and N balance in sheep. Final TA concentrations were 0, 30, 60 and 90 g TA per kg DM. The control was sprayed with the same amount of water but without TA. In vitro DM degradation and the production of gas, ammonium-N (NH4-N) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) were measured. TA-sprayed alfalfa and the control were fed to sheep to determine nutrient digestibility and N retention. Addition of TA had no influence on the extent and rate of gas production but significantly decreased NH4-N concentration at 30 (P < 0.
3.Effect of valproate on brain GABA: comparison with various medium chain fatty acids.
Keane PE, Morre M. Pharmacol Res Commun. 1985 Jun;17(6):547-55.
The antiepileptic valproic acid increases brain GABA levels, and interferes with intermediate metabolism. We have therefore evaluated the effects of a number of other medium chain fatty acids on brain GABA. Propionate, isovalerate, pent-4-enoate and diallylacetate all increased whole-brain GABA levels in mice, but only diallylacetate possessed some anticonvulsant activity. Hyperammonaemia is a common side effect observed with these acids, but artificially induced hyperammonaemia through injections of ammonium chloride did not alter brain GABA. These results suggest that high doses of valproate may increase brain GABA by interfering with intermediate metabolism, possibly at the level of medium chain acyl CoA. However alterations in brain GABA did not correlate with anticonvulsant activity.
4.On the effects of Fusarium toxin contaminated wheat and wheat chaff on nutrient utilisation and turnover of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in vitro (Rusitec).
Seeling K1, Boguhn J, Strobel E, Dänicke S, Valenta H, Ueberschär KH, Rodehutscord M. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 Aug;20(5):703-11.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Fusarium toxin contaminated wheat and wheat chaff (mycotoxin diet) on nutrient degradability and the metabolism of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) using the rumen simulations technique (Rusitec). A 6 day application period with control wheat and wheat chaff (control diet) was followed by an 8 day sampling phase. During this time three fermenters received the mycotoxin diet (64.9 mg DON/kg dry matter (DM) and 500 microg ZON/kg DM) and the remaining fermenters served as the controls (1.0mg DON/kg DM and 6 microg ZON/kg DM). Feed residues of the bags and samples of the effluent liquids were pooled per fermenter during the last 8 days of the experiment. Additionally, effluents of the mycotoxin fermenters were taken 6, 12 and 24h after the morning feeding on the first day of the sampling phase. The degradation of organic matter (OM; P<0.05), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; P<0.