1.The novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor AKN-028 has significant antileukemic activity in cell lines and primary cultures of acute myeloid leukemia.
Eriksson A1, Hermanson M, Wickström M, Lindhagen E, Ekholm C, Jenmalm Jensen A, Löthgren A, Lehmann F, Larsson R, Parrow V, Höglund M. Blood Cancer J. 2012 Aug 3;2:e81. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2012.28.
Aberrantly expressed tyrosine kinases have emerged as promising targets for drug development in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We report that AKN-028, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is a potent FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor (IC(50)=6 nM), causing dose-dependent inhibition of FLT3 autophosphorylation. Inhibition of KIT autophosphorylation was shown in a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line overexpressing KIT. In a panel of 17 cell lines, AKN-028 showed cytotoxic activity in all five AML cell lines included. AKN-028 triggered apoptosis in MV4-11 by activation of caspase 3. In primary AML samples (n=15), AKN-028 induced a clear dose-dependent cytotoxic response (mean IC(50) 1 μM). However, no correlation between antileukemic activity and FLT3 mutation status, or to the quantitative expression of FLT3, was observed. Combination studies showed synergistic activity when cytarabine or daunorubicin was added simultaneously or 24 h before AKN-028.
2.AKN-028 induces cell cycle arrest, downregulation of Myc associated genes and dose dependent reduction of tyrosine kinase activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
Eriksson A1, Kalushkova A2, Jarvius M3, Hilhorst R4, Rickardson L3, Kultima HG3, de Wijn R4, Hovestad L4, Fryknäs M3, Öberg F2, Larsson R3, Parrow V5, Höglund M3. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 15;87(2):284-91. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.10.022. Epub 2013 Nov 4.
AKN-028 is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with preclinical activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), presently undergoing investigation in a phase I/II study. It is a potent inhibitor of the FMS-like kinase 3 (FLT3) but shows in vitro activity in a wide range of AML samples. In the present study, we have characterized the effects of AKN-028 on AML cells in more detail. AKN-028 induced a dose-dependent G0/1 arrest in AML cell line MV4-11. Treatment with AKN-028 caused significantly altered gene expression in all AML cell types tested (430 downregulated, 280 upregulated transcripts). Subsequent gene set enrichment analysis revealed enrichment of genes associated with the proto-oncogene and cell cycle regulator c-Myc among the downregulated genes in both AKN-028 and midostaurin treated cells. Kinase activity profiling in AML cell lines and primary AML samples showed that tyrosine kinase activity, but not serine/threonine kinase activity, was inhibited by AKN-028 in a dose dependent manner in all samples tested, reaching approximately the same level of kinase activity.