1.The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate exacerbates reactive oxygen species production and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipose cells.
Stockler-Pinto MB1, Saldanha JF2, Yi D3, Mafra D1,2, Fouque D3,4, Soulage CO3. Free Radic Res. 2016 Mar;50(3):337-44. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2015.1125996. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
Inflammation and oxidative stress are common features of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many uremic solutes retained in these patients could be involved in these processes, among which protein-bound solutes such as indoxyl sulfate (IS). White adipose tissue recently gained attention as an important source of inflammation and oxidative stress. To examine the effect of IS on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipose cells were incubated with IS to mimic the conditions encountered in uremic patients. Incubation of adipose cells with IS increased reactive oxygen species production generated mainly through activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase since it was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Exposure to IS furthermore exacerbated the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 by adipose cells. This inflammatory response was prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibition pinpointing the pivotal role of intracellular oxidative stress.
2.Therapeutic Effect of Chrysin on Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats.
Ali BH1, Al Za'abi M, Adham SA, Yasin J, Nemmar A, Schupp N. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38(1):248-57. doi: 10.1159/000438626. Epub 2016 Jan 20.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To study the therapeutic effect of chrysin, a flavonoid with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on adenine-induced chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in rats.