1.Dissipation of fragrance materials in sludge-amended soils.
DiFrancesco AM1, Chiu PC, Standley LJ, Allen HE, Salvito DT. Environ Sci Technol. 2004 Jan 1;38(1):194-201.
A possible removal mechanism for fragrance materials (FMs) in wastewater is adsorption to sludge, and sludge application to land may be a route through which FMs are released to the soil environment. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of FMs in soil receiving sludge application. This study was conducted to better understand the dissipation of FMs in sludge-amended soils. We first determined the spiking and extraction efficiencies for 22 FMs in soil and leachate samples. Nine FMs were detected in digested sludges from two wastewater treatment plants in Delaware using these methods. We conducted a 1-year die-away experiment which involved four different soils amended with sludge, with and without spiking of the 22 FMs. The initial dissipation of FMs in all spiked trays was rapid, and only seven FMs remained at concentrations above the quantification limits after 3 months: AHTN, HHCB, musk ketone, musk xylene, acetyl cedrene, OTNE, and DPMI.
2.Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of acetyl cedrene.
Lapczynski A1, Isola DA, Christian MS, Diener RM, Api AM. Int J Toxicol. 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):423-8.
The developmental toxicity of acetyl cedrene (AC), a widely used fragrance ingredient, was evaluated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group). Gavaged dosages of 0 (corn oil), 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day were administered on days 7 through 17 of gestation (GDs 7 to 17). First and last day dosing suspensions were analyzed for AC content. All rats were observed daily for viability, clinical signs, abortions, and premature deliveries. Body weights were recorded at frequent intervals. Cesarean-sectioning and necropsy examinations were performed on GD 21. Uteri were examined for number and distribution of implantations, live and dead fetuses, and early and late resorptions. The number of corpora lutea in each ovary was also recorded. Fetuses were weighed and examined for gender and gross external changes and soft tissue or skeletal alterations. Totals of 25, 23, 21, and 24 rats became pregnant in the 0 (control), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day groups, respectively, and analysis of dosage preparations verified that administered dosages reflected calculated dosages +/-10%.
3.Determination of musks and other fragrance compounds at ng/L levels using CLSA (closed loop stripping analysis) and GC/MS detection.
Mitjans D1, Ventura F. Water Sci Technol. 2004;50(5):119-23.
Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA), a suitable tool for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds at low trace levels (ng/l), has been used to determine and quantify seven selected musks and two fragrances (Acetyl cedrene and Amberonne). The obtained extracts are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operating in the SIM mode. Quality parameters such as limit of detection; matrix effects; precision expressed as repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations of the method and an estimation of the uncertainty have been evaluated. The method has been applied to the analysis of wastewater effluents, surface water and tap water from different places in Europe. All samples contained differents musks at ng/l levels with the polycyclic musks Galaxolide and Tonalide and both fragrances, Amberonne and Acetyl cedrene, being the most abundant. These results suggest the importance of studying and controlling the presence of these ubiquitous environmental compounds in water systems.
4.Occurrences and potential risks of 16 fragrances in five German sewage treatment plants and their receiving waters.
Klaschka U1, von der Ohe PC, Bschorer A, Krezmer S, Sengl M, Letzel M. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Apr;20(4):2456-71. doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-1120-9. Epub 2012 Sep 4.
Fragrances are used in a wide array of everyday products and enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. While several musk compounds have been studied in detail, little is known about the occurrence and fate of other fragrances. We selected 16 fragrance compounds and scrutinized their presence in Bavarian sewage treatment plants (STP) influents and effluents and discussed their ecological risks for the receiving surface waters. Moreover, we followed their concentrations along the path in one STP by corresponding time-related water sampling and derived the respective elimination rates in the purification process. Six fragrance substances (OTNE, HHCB, lilial, acetyl cedrene, menthol, and, in some grab samples, also methyl-dihydrojasmonate) could be detected in the effluents of the investigated sewage treatment plants. The other fragrances under scrutiny were only found in the inflow and were eliminated in the purification process. Only OTNE and HHCB were found in the receiving surface waters of the STP in congruent concentrations, which exceeded the preliminary derived environmental thresholds by a factor of 1.