1.The ovicidal, larvacidal and adulticidal properties of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl against Drosophila melanogaster.
Van Hiel MB1, Breugelmans B, Pagel CN, Williams AK, Varan AK, Burke R, Bowles VM, Batterham P. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049961. Epub 2012 Nov 20.
Insecticide resistance has limited the number of available chemical options for insect pest control. Hence there is a need for new chemistries with novel modes of action. Here we investigate the mode of action for an insecticide that has not yet been released for commercial use. The ovicidal, larvacidal and adulticidal effects of 5,5'-dimethyl -2, 2'-dipyridyl (termed Ha44), which is being developed as a treatment for head lice, were evaluated in the Drosophila melanogaster model system. Ha44 demonstrated significant activity against embryos and was capable of arresting development at a number of stages of embryogenesis. The effects of Ha44 on embryos was shown to be reversible following the addition of the metal ions Fe(II) and Fe(III), Cu and Zn. When larvae were exposed to Ha44, lethality was recorded at similar concentrations to those observed for embryos. Using an eYFP reporter system it was shown that Ha44 was able to reduce the levels of both copper and zinc in the digestive tract, confirming the binding of Ha44 to these metals in vivo.
2.Studies of the interaction of tetramethylcucurbituril and 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl hydrochloride.
Cong H1, Zhao YJ, Xue SF, Tao Z, Zhu QJ. J Mol Model. 2007 Dec;13(12):1221-6. Epub 2007 Oct 5.
The interaction between tetramethylcucurbituril (host) and 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl hydrochloride (guest) was studied by 1H NMR, X-ray crystallography, electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectra and quantum chemistry calculations. This experimental-computational study that indicated the host can orientationally encapsulate the guest with a moderate association constant value. Computation qualitatively explained the split UV-visible absorption peak of the inclusion complex.