1.Structure, stability and function of 5-chlorouracil modified A:U and G:U base pairs.
Patra A1, Harp J, Pallan PS, Zhao L, Abramov M, Herdewijn P, Egli M. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(4):2689-97. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1316. Epub 2012 Dec 28.
The thymine analog 5-chlorouridine, first reported in the 1950s as anti-tumor agent, is known as an effective mutagen, clastogen and toxicant as well as an effective inducer of sister-chromatid exchange. Recently, the first microorganism with a chemically different genome was reported; the selected Escherichia coli strain relies on the four building blocks 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (ClU), A, C and G instead of the standard T, A, C, G alphabet [Marlière,P., Patrouix,J., Döring,V., Herdewijn,P., Tricot,S., Cruveiller,S., Bouzon,M. and Mutzel,R. (2011) Chemical evolution of a bacterium's genome. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50, 7109-7114]. The residual fraction of T in the DNA of adapted bacteria was <2% and the switch from T to ClU was accompanied by a massive number of mutations, including >1500 A to G or G to A transitions in a culture. The former is most likely due to wobble base pairing between ClU and G, which may be more common for ClU than T.
2.Inhibition of hepatitis B virus production by modified 2',3'-dideoxy-thymidine and 2',3'-dideoxy-5-methylcytidine derivatives. In vitro and in vivo studies.
Matthes E1, von Janta-Lipinski M, Will H, Schröder HC, Merz H, Steffen R, Müller WE. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Apr 1;43(7):1571-7.
The effect of analogues of both 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FddThd) [2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluorouridine (FddUrd), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-chlorouridine (FddClUrd), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'- fluoro-5-bromouridine (FddBrUrd) and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-bromovinyluridine (FddBVUrd)] and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluorocytidine (FddCyt) [2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-fluorocytidine (FddFCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-chlorocytidine (FddClCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-methylcytidine (FddMeCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-ethylcytidine (FddEtCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-chloro-5-methylcytidine (ClddMeCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-amino-5-methylcytidine (AmddMeCyt), 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-azido-5- methylcytidine (AzddMeCyt) and arabinosyl-5-methylcytosine (AraMeCyt)] were tested for their potential antiviral activity in vitro using the human hepatoblastoma cell line, Hep G2 2.2.15, which was transfected with a vector containing hepatitis B virus (HBV). It was found that FddThd, FddMeCyt, FddEtCyt, ClddMeCyt, AmddMeCyt and AraMeCyt display cytostatic activity at concentrations (CD50 values) between 0.
3.In search of flavivirus inhibitors: evaluation of different tritylated nucleoside analogues.
Chatelain G1, Debing Y, De Burghgraeve T, Zmurko J, Saudi M, Rozenski J, Neyts J, Van Aerschot A. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Jul;65:249-55. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.04.034. Epub 2013 Apr 24.
Following up on a hit that was identified in a large scale cell-based antiviral screening effort, a series of triphenylmethyl alkylated nucleoside analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against the dengue virus (DENV) and the yellow fever virus (YFV). Hereto, trityl moieties were attached at various positions of the sugar ring combined with subtle variations of the heterocyclic base. Several triphenylmethyl modified nucleosides were uncovered being endowed with submicromolar in vitro antiviral activity against the YFV. The most selective inhibitor in this series was 3',5'-bis-O-tritylated-5-chlorouridine (1b) affording a selectivity index of over 90, whereas the 3',5'-bis-O-tritylated inosine congener (5b) displayed the highest activity, but proved more toxic. The finding of these lipophilic structures being endowed with high antiviral activity for flaviviruses, should stimulate the interest for further structure-activity research.
4.Synthesis and anti-HIV evaluation of 2',3'-dideoxyribo-5-chloropyrimidine analogues: reduced toxicity of 5-chlorinated 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.
Van Aerschot A1, Everaert D, Balzarini J, Augustyns K, Jie L, Janssen G, Peeters O, Blaton N, De Ranter C, De Clercq E, et al. J Med Chem. 1990 Jun;33(6):1833-9.
In view of the selective anti-HIV activity of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoro-5-chlorouridine (11), a series of eight 2',3'-dideoxy-5-chloropyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in MT-4 cells. A marked improvement in selectivity was noted for the 5-chlorouracil derivatives of 2,3-dideoxyribofuranose, 3-azido-2,3-dideoxyribofuranose, and 3-fluoro-2,3-dideoxyribofuranose, mainly due to decreased toxicity of the compounds for the host cells. While chlorination of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine removed the anti-HIV activity, introduction of a chlorine at the C-5 position of 3'-fluoro-, 3'-azido- or 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxycytidine led to reduced cytotoxicity with only slightly reduced anti-HIV activity. X-ray analysis showed compound 11 to have two molecules in the asymmetric unit with chi = -168.8 (3) degrees and -131.3 (3) degrees and P = 179 (1) degree and 163 (1) degree, respectively; thus revealing no close resemblance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT).