1.The synthesis and investigation of impurities found in Clandestine Laboratories: Baeyer-Villiger Route Part I; Synthesis of P2P from benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone.
Doughty D1, Painter B1, Pigou PE1, Johnston MR2. Forensic Sci Int. 2016 Mar 24;263:55-66. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.034. [Epub ahead of print]
The synthesis of impurities detected in clandestinely manufactured Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) has emerged as more desirable than simple "fingerprint" profiling. We have been investigating the impurities formed when phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) 5, a key ATS precursor, is synthesised in three steps; an aldol condensation of benzaldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); a Baeyer-Villiger reaction; and ester hydrolysis. We have identified and selectively synthesised several impurities that may be used as route specific markers for this series of synthetic steps. Specifically these impurities are 3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one 3, 2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-1,4-diene-3-one 9, 2-(methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenyl-3-butene 16, 2-(Methylamino)-3-methyl-4-phenylbutane 17, and 1-(methylamino)-2-methyl-1,5-diphenylpenta-4-ene-3-one 22.
2.Switching statin-treated patients from fenofibrate to the prescription omega-3 therapy icosapent ethyl: a retrospective case series.
Castaldo RS1. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2016;32:162-169. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
INTRODUCTION: Patients receiving statin therapy for dyslipidaemia often require treatment with an additional agent to control triglyceride levels. Options for add-on therapy include fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. This case series describes the effects of switching add-on therapy from fenofibrate to icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on patient lipid profiles.
3.Royal Jelly Constituents Increase the Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase through Histone Acetylation in Monocytic THP-1 Cells.
Makino J1, Ogasawara R1, Kamiya T1, Hara H1, Mitsugi Y1, Yamaguchi E1, Itoh A1, Adachi T1. J Nat Prod. 2016 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is one of the main SOD isozymes and plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by accelerating the dismutation reaction of superoxide. Royal jelly includes 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA, 2), which regulates the expression of various types of genes in epigenetics through the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) antagonism. The expression of EC-SOD was previously reported to be regulated epigenetically through histone acetylation in THP-1 cells. Therefore, we herein evaluated the effects of the royal jelly constituents 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDA, 1), sebacic acid (SA, 3), and 4-hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (4-HPO-DAEE, 4), which is a derivative of 2, on the expression of EC-SOD in THP-1 cells. The treatment with 1 mM 1, 2, or 3 or 100 μM 4 increased EC-SOD expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Moreover, the enrichment of acetylated histone H4 was observed in the proximal promoter region of EC-SOD and was caused by the partial promotion of ERK phosphorylation (only 4) and inhibition of HDAC activities, but not by the expression of HDACs.
4.Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.
de Campos FF1,2, Enzweiler J3. Environ Monit Assess. 2016 May;188(5):281. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5282-7. Epub 2016 Apr 11.
The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic.