1.Picosecond pulse radiolysis of the liquid diethyl carbonate.
Torche F1, El Omar AK, Babilotte P, Sorgues S, Schmidhammer U, Marignier JL, Mostafavi M, Belloni J. J Phys Chem A. 2013 Oct 24;117(42):10801-10. doi: 10.1021/jp406856u. Epub 2013 Oct 16.
The diethyl carbonate, DEC, is an ester that is used as a solvent in Li-ion batteries, but its behavior under ionizing radiation was unknown. The transient optical absorption spectra, the decay kinetics, and the influence of various scavengers have been studied by using the picosecond laser-triggered electron accelerator ELYSE. In neat DEC, the intense near-IR (NIR) absorption spectrum is assigned to the solvated electron. It is overlapped in the visible range by another transient but longer-lived and less intense band that is assigned to the oxidized radical DEC(-H). The solvated electron molar absorption coefficients and radiolytic yield evolution from 25 ps, the geminate recombination kinetics, and the rate constants of electron transfer reactions to scavengers are determined. The radiolytic mechanism, indicating a certain radioresistance of DEC, is compared with that for other solvents.
2.β-Keto esters from ketones and ethyl chloroformate: a rapid, general, efficient synthesis of pyrazolones and their antimicrobial, in silico and in vitro cytotoxicity studies.
Ragavan RV1, Kumar KM, Vijayakumar V, Sarveswari S, Ramaiah S, Anbarasu A, Karthikeyan S, Giridharan P, Kumari NS. Org Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jul 19;3(1):6. doi: 10.1186/2191-2858-3-6.
BACKGROUND: Pyrazolones are traditionally synthesized by the reaction of β-keto esters with hydrazine and its derivatives. There are methods to synthesize β-keto esters from esters and aldehydes, but these methods have main limitation in varying the substituents. Often, there are a number of methods such as acylation of enolates in which a chelating effect has been employed to lock the enolate anion using lithium and magnesium salts; however, these methods suffer from inconsistent yields in the case of aliphatic acylation. There are methods to synthesize β-keto esters from ketones like caboxylation of ketone enolates using carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide sources in the presence of palladium or transition metal catalysts. Currently, the most general and simple method to synthesize β-keto ester is the reaction of dimethyl or ethyl carbonate with ketone in the presence of strong bases which also requires long reaction time, use of excessive amount of reagent and inconsistent yield.
3.2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside suppresses expression of adhesion molecules in aortic wall of dietary atherosclerotic rats and promonocytic U937 cells.
Wang YQ1, Shen Y, Li F, Wang CH, Zhang W. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013;67(3):997-1004. doi: 10.1007/s12013-013-9595-7.
We sought to investigate whether TSG suppressed the ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression in dietary atherosclerotic rats and in Ox-LDL-induced U937 cells. For this purpose, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly-and-equally divided into six groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rats a hyperlipidemic diet. TSG (120, 60 or 30 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage. Simvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) was administered as positive control whereas physiological saline (0.9% NaCl) served as untreated control. After 12 weeks, rats were euthanized by ethyl carbonate (1,200 mg/kg) and aortic wall samples were collected. Besides, U937 cells were stimulated for 48 h by Ox-LDL (80 μg/mL) with and without TSG (120, 60, 30 μg/L) or simvastatin (100 μg/L). ICAM-1/VCAM-1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR and protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting. The data show that ICAM-1/VCAM-1 mRNA/protein expression was significantly enhanced in atherosclerotic aortas compared with normal diet group.
4.Design and synthesis of a novel pre-column derivatization reagent with a 6-methoxy-4-quinolone moiety for fluorescence and tandem mass spectrometric detection and its application to chiral amino acid analysis.
Oyama T1, Negishi E2, Onigahara H1, Kusano N1, Miyoshi Y1, Mita M3, Nakazono M1, Ohtsuki S4, Ojida A1, Lindner W5, Hamase K6. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015 Dec 10;116:71-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2015.05.039. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
A new pre-column derivatization reagent with a 6-methoxy-4-quinolone (6-MOQ) moiety for amino acid analysis, 2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl(2-(6-methoxy-4-oxoquinolin-1(4H)-yl)ethyl) carbonate (6-MOQ-EtOCOOSu), was designed and synthesized. 6-MOQ is a thermo/photostable fluorophore with a high proton-affinity site and sensitive determination could be carried out by a fluorescence detector and also by an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. Derivatization of amino acids with 6-MOQ-EtOCOOSu was completed within 1 min under mild basic conditions at room temperature. The 6-MOQ derivatives of all chiral proteinogenic amino acids were separated using the combination of three enantioselective columns, Chiralpak QN-AX, Chiralpak ZXIX(+), and KSAACSP-001S, with separation factors of higher than 1.07. The present reagent enables the sensitive determination of amino acid enantiomers, and the values of LLOD using a chiral-HPLC-MS/MS system were 0.05-50 fmol/injection.