1.Hepatic metabolism of carcinogenic β-asarone.
Cartus AT1, Stegmüller S1, Simson N1, Wahl A1, Neef S1, Kelm H2, Schrenk D1. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Sep 21;28(9):1760-73. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00223. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
β-Asarone (1) belongs to the group of naturally occurring phenylpropenes like eugenol or anethole. Compound 1 is found in several plants, e.g., Acorus calamus or Asarum europaeum. Compound 1-containing plant materials and essential oils thereof are used to flavor foods and alcoholic beverages and as ingredients of many drugs in traditional phytomedicines. Although 1 has been claimed to have several positive pharmacological effects, it was found to be genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents (liver and small intestine). The mechanism of action of carcinogenic allylic phenylpropenes consists of the metabolic activation via cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulfotransferases. In vivo experiments suggested that this pathway does not play a major role in the carcinogenicity of the propenylic compound 1 as is the case for other propenylic compounds, e.g., anethole. Since the metabolic pathways of 1 have not been investigated and its carcinogenic mode of action is unknown, we investigated the metabolism of 1 in liver microsomes of rats, bovines, porcines, and humans using (1)H NMR, HPLC-DAD, and LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques.
2.[Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].
Deng GG, Yang XW, Zhang YB, Xu W, Wei W, Chen TL. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2015 Jun;40(11):2148-56.
The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29).
3.Gastroprotective Activities of Sennoside A and Sennoside B via the Up-Regulation of Prostaglandin E2 and the Inhibition of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase.
Hwang IY1, Jeong CS1. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2015 Sep;23(5):458-64. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2015.052. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Sennoside A (erythro) and sennoside B (threo) are dianthrone glycosides and diastereomers. We investigated their abilities to prevent the gastric lesions associated with diseases, such as, gastritis and gastric ulcer. To elucidate their gastroprotective effects, the inhibitions of HCl•EtOH-induced gastritis and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers were assessed in rats. It was observed that both sennoside A and sennoside B increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels and inhibited H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (proton pump). In a rat model, both compounds reduced gastric juice, total acidity and increased pH, indicating that proton pump inhibition reduces gastric acid secretion. Furthermore, sennoside A and B increased PGE2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In a gastric emptying and intestinal transporting rate experiment, both sennoside A and sennoside B accelerated motility. Our results thus suggest that sennoside A and sennoside B possess significant gastroprotective activities and they might be useful for the treatment of gastric disease.
4.Enantioselective Synthesis of Dideoxy-tetrafluorinated Hexoses.
Golten S1, Fontenelle CQ1, Timofte RS1, Bailac L2, Light M1, Sebban M2, Oulyadi H2, Linclau B1. J Org Chem. 2016 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Carbohydrates typically have low affinities to protein binding sites, and the development of carbohydrate mimetics with improved binding is therefore of interest. Tetrafluorination of monosaccharides is one of the strategies currently under investigation for that purpose. The synthesis of the required tetrafluorinated monosaccharides is achieved by a fluorinated building block approach. The enantioselective synthesis of tetrafluorinated hexose derivatives is described here, in both pyranose and furanose forms. In particular, the optimization of the enantioselective synthesis of the previously reported 2,3-dideoxy-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-d-threo-hexopyranose 3, 2,3-dideoxy-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-d-threo-hexofuranose 4, and 2,3-dideoxy-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-d-erythro-hexopyranose 5 is described as is the synthesis of two novel sugar derivatives, 3,4-dideoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-d-threo-hexopyranose 6 and 3,4-dideoxy-3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-d-erythro-hexopyranose 7.