1.Organosolv pretreatment of sorghum bagasse using a low concentration of hydrophobic solvents such as 1-butanol or 1-pentanol.
Teramura H1, Sasaki K2, Oshima T1, Matsuda F3, Okamoto M4, Shirai T4, Kawaguchi H1, Ogino C1, Hirano K5, Sazuka T5, Kitano H5, Kikuchi J6, Kondo A7. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2016 Feb 2;9:27. doi: 10.1186/s13068-016-0427-z. eCollection 2016.
BACKGROUND: The primary components of lignocellulosic biomass such as sorghum bagasse are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Each component can be utilized as a sustainable resource for producing biofuels and bio-based products. However, due to their complicated structures, fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass components is required. Organosolv pretreatment is an attractive method for this purpose. However, as organosolv pretreatment uses high concentrations of organic solvents (>50 %), decreasing the concentration necessary for fractionation would help reduce processing costs. In this study, we sought to identify organic solvents capable of efficiently fractionating sorghum bagasse components at low concentrations.
2.Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.
Ficco DB1, De Simone V2, De Leonardis AM2, Giovanniello V2, Del Nobile MA3, Padalino L3, Lecce L3, Borrelli GM2, De Vita P2. Food Chem. 2016 Aug 15;205:187-95. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.014. Epub 2016 Mar 5.
In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (p<0.05) reduced the content of anthocyanins (21.42μg/g vs. 46.32μg/g) and carotenoids (3.77μg/g vs. 4.04μg/g) with respect to the pasteurisation process involved in fresh pasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower.
3.Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Wu Y1, Xue C1, Chen L2, Yuan W1, Bai F3. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2016 Mar;363(5). pii: fnw023. doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnw023. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol).
4.Exposure and Metabolic Activation Biomarkers of Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines.
Hecht SS1, Stepanov I1, Carmella SG1. Acc Chem Res. 2016 Jan 19;49(1):106-14. doi: 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00472. Epub 2015 Dec 17.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world, and cigarette smoking is its main cause. Oral cavity cancer is another debilitating and often fatal cancer closely linked to tobacco product use. While great strides have been made in decreasing tobacco use in the United States and some other countries, there are still an estimated 1 billion men and 250 million women in the world who are cigarette smokers and there are hundreds of millions of smokeless tobacco users, all at risk for cancer. Worldwide, lung cancer kills about three people per minute. This Account focuses on metabolites and biomarkers of two powerful tobacco-specific nitrosamine carcinogens, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), considered to be among the main causes of lung cancer and oral cavity cancer in people who use tobacco products. Three properties of NNK and NNN are critical for successful biomarker studies: they are present in all tobacco products, they are tobacco-specific and are not found in any other product, and they are strong carcinogens.