1.Structural effects on persister control by brominated furanones.
Pan J1, Ren D. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Dec 15;23(24):6559-62. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.10.070. Epub 2013 Nov 9.
Bacterial persister cells are a small population of dormant cells that are tolerant to essentially all antibiotics. Recently, we reported that a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor, (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (BF8), can revert antibiotic tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa persister cells. To better understand this phenomenon, several synthetic brominated furanones with similar structures were compared for their activities in persister control and inhibition of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS. The results show that some other furanones in addition to BF8 are also AHL QS inhibitors and can revert antibiotic tolerance of P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cells. However, not all QS inhibiting BFs can revert persistence at growth non-inhibitory concentrations, suggesting that QS inhibition itself is not sufficient for persister control.
2.Products of the OH radical-initiated reactions of furan, 2- and 3-methylfuran, and 2,3- and 2,5-dimethylfuran in the presence of NO.
Aschmann SM1, Nishino N, Arey J, Atkinson R. J Phys Chem A. 2014 Jan 16;118(2):457-66. doi: 10.1021/jp410345k. Epub 2013 Dec 31.
Products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with furan, furan-d4, 2- and 3-methylfuran, and 2,3- and 2,5-dimethylfuran have been investigated in the presence of NO using direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS and API-MS/MS), and gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors (GC-FID and GC-MS) to analyze samples collected onto annular denuders coated with XAD solid adsorbent and further coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine for derivatization of carbonyl-containing compounds to their oximes. The products observed were unsaturated 1,4-dicarbonyls, unsaturated carbonyl-acids and/or hydroxy-furanones, and from 2,5-dimethylfuran, an unsaturated carbonyl-ester. Quantification of the unsaturated 1,4-dicarbonyls was carried out by GC-FID using 2,5-hexanedione as an internal standard, and the measured molar formation yields were: HC(O)CH═CHCHO (dominantly the E-isomer) from OH + furan, 75 ± 5%; CH3C(O)CH═CHCHO (dominantly the E-isomer) from OH + 2-methylfuran, 31 ± 5%; HC(O)C(CH3)═CHCHO (a E-/Z-mixture) from OH + 3-methylfuran, 38 ± 2%; and CH3C(O)C(CH3)═CHCHO from OH + 2,3-dimethylfuran, 8 ± 2%.
3.Furan formation during storage and reheating of sterilised vegetable purées.
Palmers S1, Grauwet T, Buvé C, Van de Vondel L, Kebede BT, Hendrickx ME, Van Loey A. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2015;32(2):161-9. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2014.999720. Epub 2015 Jan 21.
To this day, research for furan mitigation has mostly targeted the levels of food production and handling of prepared foods by the consumer. However, part of the furan concentrations found in commercially available food products might originate from chemical deterioration reactions during storage. A range of individual vegetable purées was stored at two different temperatures to investigate the effects of storage on the furan concentrations of shelf-stable, vegetable-based foods. After 5 months of storage at 35°C (temperature-abuse conditions), a general increase in furan concentrations was observed. The furan formation during storage could be reduced by storing the vegetable purées at a refrigerated temperature of 4°C, at which the furan concentrations remained approximately constant for at least 5 months. Following storage, the vegetable purées were briefly reheated to 90°C to simulate the effect of the final preparation step before consumption.
4.Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.
Trefz P1, Koehler H, Klepik K, Moebius P, Reinhold P, Schubert JK, Miekisch W. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 8;8(10):e76868. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076868. eCollection 2013.
Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0), 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6). Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS.