1.Hypocalcemia in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion.
Giancarelli A1, Birrer KL2, Alban RF3, Hobbs BP2, Liu-DeRyke X4. J Surg Res. 2016 May 1;202(1):182-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2015.12.036. Epub 2015 Dec 30.
BACKGROUND: Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is increasingly used in civilian trauma resuscitation. Calcium is vital for coagulation, but hypocalcemia commonly occurs during massive transfusion due to citrate and serum calcium chelation. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of hypocalcemia and severe hypocalcemia in trauma patients who receive massive transfusion and to compare characteristics of patients with severe versus nonsevere hypocalcemia.
2.Preexposure to salty and sour taste enhances conditioned taste aversion to novel sucrose.
Flores VL1, Moran A2, Bernstein M3, Katz DB4. Learn Mem. 2016 Apr 15;23(5):221-8. doi: 10.1101/lm.040360.115. Print 2016 May.
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty-the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces its associability. The effect of exposure to tastes other than the CS has, in contrast, received little investigation. Here, we exposed rats to sodium chloride (N) and citric acid (C), either before or within a conditioning session involving novel sucrose (S). Presentation of this taste array within the conditioning session weakened the resultant S aversion, as expected. The opposite effect, however, was observed when exposure to the taste array was provided in sessions that preceded conditioning: such experience enhanced the eventual S aversion-a result that was robust to differences in CS delivery method and number of tastes presented in conditioning sessions.
3.Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.
Ramdzan AN1, Almeida MI1, McCullough MJ2, Kolev SD3. Anal Chim Acta. 2016 May 5;919:47-54. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2016.03.030. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer.
4.Accumulation of pharmaceuticals in groundwater under arid climate conditions - Results from unsaturated column experiments.
Zemann M1, Majewsky M2, Wolf L3. Chemosphere. 2016 Apr 13;154:463-471. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.136. [Epub ahead of print]
Intense reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture is practiced all over the world, especially in arid and water-scarce regions. In doing so, pharmaceutical residues in the water are irrigated to the soil and subsequently can percolate into the local aquifers. Since evaporation rates in these areas are typically high, persistent substances might enrich in the groundwater recharge of closed catchments like the Jordan Valley. Against this background, unsaturated column tests were conducted to investigate the potential for evaporative accumulation of the two pharmaceuticals bezafibrate and carbamazepine under simulated arid climate conditions. Parallel tests were conducted with inhibited microbiological activity where both substances showed an increase in the effluent concentrations proportional to the evaporation loss of the inflow solution. The mean accumulation factors of the pharmaceuticals correspond to the evaporated water loss. The experiments indicate the accumulation potential for pharmaceuticals with high persistence against biodegradation.