1.Affinity maturation of anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl antibodies accompanies a modulation of antigen specificity.
Oda M1, Azuma T2. Mol Immunol. 2016 Feb;70:8-12. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.12.003. Epub 2015 Dec 11.
Anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) antibodies bearing λ1 chains are known to possess fine specificity, referred to as heterocliticity, which causes these antibodies to bind to hapten analogues such as (4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NIP) and (4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenyl)acetyl (NNP) with higher affinity than to the autologous hapten, NP. They also show preferential binding to the phenolate form of hapten than to the phenolic form. We address here the question of whether affinity maturation accompanies in the fine specificity of these antibodies by analyzing the interaction between NP1-, NIP1-, or NNP1-hen egg lysozyme and anti-NP antibodies that possess different association constants to NP using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor. We measured interactions at various pH values and found that heterocliticity as well as preferential binding to the phenolate form of hapten were most prominent in a germline antibody having immature affinity and that fine specificity becomes less evident, i.
2.Rottlerin stimulates apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through interactions with proteins of the Bcl-2 family.
Ohno I1, Eibl G, Odinokova I, Edderkaoui M, Damoiseaux RD, Yazbec M, Abrol R, Goddard WA 3rd, Yokosuka O, Pandol SJ, Gukovskaya AS. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Jan;298(1):G63-73. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00257.2009. Epub 2009 Sep 17.
Rottlerin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Mallotus philipinensis. In the present study, we show that rottlerin decreased tumor size and stimulated apoptosis in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer with no effect on normal tissues in vivo. Rottlerin also induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cell lines by interacting with mitochondria and stimulating cytochrome c release. Immunoprecipitation results indicated that rottlerin disrupts complexes of prosurvival Bcl-xL with Bim and Puma. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown showed that Bim and Puma are necessary for rottlerin to stimulate apoptosis. We also showed that rottlerin and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL inhibitor BH3I-2' stimulate apoptosis through a common mechanism. They both directly interact with mitochondria, causing increased cytochrome c release and mitochondrial depolarization, and both decrease sequestration of BH3-only proteins by Bcl-xL. However, the effects of rottlerin and BH3I-2' on the complex formation between Bcl-xL and BH3-only proteins are different.
3.Synthesis of redox-active, intramolecular charge-transfer chromophores by the [2+2] cycloaddition of ethynylated 2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-ones with tetracyanoethylene.
Shoji T1, Higashi J, Ito S, Okujima T, Yasunami M, Morita N. Chemistry. 2011 Apr 26;17(18):5116-29. doi: 10.1002/chem.201003628. Epub 2011 Mar 30.
Ethynylated 2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-ones 5-15 have been prepared by Pd-catalyzed alkynylation of 3-iodo-5-isopropyl-2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-one (2) with the corresponding ethynylarenes or the reaction of 2-iodothiophene with 3-ethynyl-5-isopropyl-2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-one (4) under Sonogashira-Hagihara conditions. Compounds 5-15 reacted with tetracyanoethylene in a formal [2+2] cycloaddition reaction, followed by ring opening of the initially formed [2+2] cycloadducts, cyclobutenes, to afford the corresponding 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobutadienyl (TCBD) chromophores 16-26 in excellent yields. The intramolecular charge-transfer interactions between the 2H-cyclohepta[b]furan-2-one ring and TCBD acceptor moiety were investigated by UV/Vis spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The redox behavior of the novel TCBD derivatives 16-26 was examined by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed multistep electrochemical reduction properties, depending on the number of TCBD units in the molecule.
4.The Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor BH3I-2' affects the dynamics and subcellular localization of sumoylated proteins.
Plourde MB1, Morchid A, Iranezereza L, Berthoux L. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013 Apr;45(4):826-35. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2013.01.013. Epub 2013 Jan 31.
Sumoylation modulates many proteins implicated in apoptosis such as Fas, TNFR1, Daxx, p53 and its regulator MDM2. Some of these proteins, such as DRP-1, are involved in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The intrinsic pathway is regulated at the mitochondrial level by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The small-molecule inhibitor BH3I-2' binds to the hydrophobic groove of the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Following treatment with this inhibitor in various experimental conditions, we observed decreased levels of detergent-soluble SUMO-1, an increase in the relative levels of detergent-insoluble sumoylated proteins, or both. Accordingly, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the relative numbers and intensities of endogenously or exogenously expressed SUMO-1 foci in the nucleus were increased following BH3I-2' treatment. MG132 caused a large increase in steady-state levels of SUMO-1 and of sumoylated proteins, and this was especially true for detergent-insoluble proteins.