1.Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.
Kim J1, Jung JM1, Lee J1, Kim KH2, Choi TO3, Kim JK4, Jeon YJ5, Kwon EE6. Bioresour Technol. 2016 Apr 8;212:55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.024. [Epub ahead of print]
This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform.
2.Comparison and validation of 2 analytical methods for the determination of free fatty acids in dairy products by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Mannion DT1, Furey A2, Kilcawley KN3. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S0022-0302(16)30178-3. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10795. [Epub ahead of print]
Accurate quantification of free fatty acids (FFA) in dairy products is important for quality control, nutritional, antimicrobial, authenticity, legislative, and flavor purposes. In this study, the performance of 2 widely used gas chromatographic flame ionization detection methods for determination of FFA in dairy products differing in lipid content and degree of lipolysis were evaluated. We used a direct on-column approach where the isolated FFA extract was injected directly and a derivatization approach where the FFA were esterified in the injector to methyl esters using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a catalyst. A comprehensive validation was undertaken to establish method linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, accuracy, and precision. Linear calibrations of 3 to 700 mg/L (R2 > 0.999) and 20 to 700 mg/L (R2 > 0.997), and limits of detection and limits of quantification of 0.7 and 3 mg/L and 5 and 20 mg/L were obtained for the direct injection on-column and the derivatization method, respectively.
3.Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells.
Yun BR1, Yang HJ1, Weon JB1, Lee J1, Eom MR1, Ma CJ2. Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 Apr-Jun;12(46):109-13. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.177905.
BACKGROUND: Dianthus superbus L. has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent.
4.3-Dimensional ZnO/CdS nanocomposite with high mobility as an efficient electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells.
Wang Y1, Fu H1, Wang Y1, Tan L2, Chen L2, Chen Y2. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]
The inclusions of solution-processed ZnO electron transport layers (ETLs) of inverted polymer solar cells can lead to various surface defects, which can act as interfacial recombination centers for photogenerated charges and thereby can lead to degradation of the device performance. Three-dimensional (3D) CdS with different morphologies, such as flower-like CdS (F-CdS), branched CdS (B-CdS), and spherical CdS (S-CdS), are synthesized to modify ZnO ETLs, by effectively removing the intragap states of the ZnO nanocrystal films by forming ZnO/F-CdS, ZnO/B-CdS, and ZnO/S-CdS composite ETLs, respectively. Moreover, ZnO/CdS possesses higher electron mobility and provides a larger interface between the ETL and active layer, which is beneficial for enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the inverted organic solar cells. In particular, a device based on a ZnO/S-CdS ETL and thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) active layer achieved a PCE of 8.