1.Monoacylglycerol lipases act as evolutionarily conserved regulators of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism.
Heier C1, Taschler U1, Radulovic M1, Aschauer P1, Eichmann TO1, Grond S1, Wolinski H1, Oberer M1, Zechner R1, Kohlwein SD1, Zimmermann R2. J Biol Chem. 2016 Mar 31. pii: jbc.M115.705541. [Epub ahead of print]
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, which accumulate in human tissues upon ethanol intake. Although FAEE are considered as toxic metabolites causing cellular dysfunction and tissue damage, the enzymology of FAEE metabolism remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a biochemical screen inSaccharomyces cerevisiaeto identify and characterize putative hydrolases involved in FAEE catabolism. We found that Yju3p, the functional orthologue of mammalian monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), contributes more than 90% of cellular FAEE hydrolase activity and its loss leads to the accumulation of FAEE. Heterologous expression of mammalian MGL inyju3Δ mutants restored cellular FAEE hydrolase activity and FAEE catabolism. Moreover, overexpression or pharmacological inhibition of MGL in mouse AML-12 hepatocytes decreased or increased FAEE levels, respectively. FAEE are transiently incorporated into lipid droplets (LDs) and both Yju3p and MGL co-localized with these organelles.
2.Short-chain aliphatic ester synthesis using Thermobifida fusca cutinase.
Su L1, Hong R1, Guo X1, Wu J2, Xia Y3. Food Chem. 2016 Sep 1;206:131-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.051. Epub 2016 Mar 17.
Short-chain aliphatic esters are commonly used as fruit flavorings in the food industry. In this study, Thermobifida fusca (T. fusca) cutinase was used for the synthesis of aliphatic esters, and the maximum yield of ethyl caproate reached 99.2% at a cutinase concentration of 50U/ml, 40°C, and water content of 0.5%, representing the highest ester yield to date. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification displayed strong tolerance for water content (up to 8%) and acid concentration (up to 0.8M). At substrate concentrations ⩽0.8M, the ester yield remained above 80%. Moreover, ester yields of more than 98% and 95% were achieved for acids of C3-C8 and alcohols of C1-C6, respectively, indicating extensive chain length selectivity of the cutinase. These results demonstrate the superior ability of T. fusca cutinase to catalyze the synthesis of short-chain esters. This study provides the basis for industrial production of short-chain esters using T. fusca cutinase.
3.A New Neolignan from Coix lachryma-jobi var. mayuen.
Kim SY, Choi CW, Hong SS, Shin H, Oh JS. Nat Prod Commun. 2016 Feb;11(2):229-31.
A new neolignan, named coixide A (1), along with fifteen known compounds, (7R,8S)-3'-demethyl-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (2), (7R,8)-3'-demethyl-9'-butoxy-dehydrodiconiferyl-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (3),adenosine (4), 2-O-caffeoyl isocitricacid (5), pseudolaroside A (6), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (7), 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (8), 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-7- methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (9), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (10), p-coumaric acid ethyl ester (11), caffeic acid ethyl ester (12), p-coumaric acid (13), cis-N-p-coumaroyltyramine (14) trans-N-p-coumaroyltyramine (15), and coixol (16) have been isolated from Coix lachryma-jobi var. mayuen. Their chemical structures were elucidated by chemical evidence on the basis of spectroscopic and MS data, and as well as by comparison with those reported.
4.Switching statin-treated patients from fenofibrate to the prescription omega-3 therapy icosapent ethyl: a retrospective case series.
Castaldo RS1. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2016;32:162-169. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
INTRODUCTION: Patients receiving statin therapy for dyslipidaemia often require treatment with an additional agent to control triglyceride levels. Options for add-on therapy include fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. This case series describes the effects of switching add-on therapy from fenofibrate to icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on patient lipid profiles.