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Reference Reading

1.Molecular Basis of the Receptor Interactions of Polysialic Acid (polySia), polySia Mimetics, and Sulfated Polysaccharides.
Zhang R1,2, Loers G3, Schachner M3,4, Boelens R5, Wienk H5, Siebert S1, Eckert T6,7, Kraan S8, Rojas-Macias MA6, Lütteke T6, Galuska SP9, Scheidig A2, Petridis AK10, Liang S11, Billeter M12, Schauer R13, Steinmeyer J14, Schröder JM15, Siebert HC16. ChemMedChem. 2016 May 2. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201500609. [Epub ahead of print]
Polysialic acid (polySia) and polySia glycomimetic molecules support nerve cell regeneration, differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. With a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, as well as data mining and molecular modeling techniques, it is possible to correlate specific ligand-receptor interactions with biochemical processes and in vivo studies that focus on the potential therapeutic impact of polySia, polySia glycomimetics, and sulfated polysaccharides in neuronal diseases. With this strategy, the receptor interactions of polySia and polySia mimetics can be understood on a submolecular level. As the HNK-1 glycan also enhances neuronal functions, we tested whether similar sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides from seaweed could be suitable, in addition to polySia, for finding potential new routes into patient care focusing on an improved cure for various neuronal diseases. The knowledge obtained here on the structural interplay between polySia or sulfated polysaccharides and their receptors can be exploited to develop new drugs and application routes for the treatment of neurological diseases and dysfunctions.
2.Gasified Grass and Wood Biochars Facilitate Plant Establishment in Acid Mine Soils.
Phillips CL, Trippe KM, Whittaker G, Griffith SM, Johnson MG, Banowetz GM. J Environ Qual. 2016 May;45(3):1013-1020.
Heavy metals in exposed mine tailings threaten ecosystems that surround thousands of abandoned mines in the United States. Biochars derived from the pyrolysis or gasification of biomass may serve as a valuable soil amendment to revegetate mine sites. We evaluated the ability of two biochars, produced by gasification of either Kentucky bluegrass seed screenings (KB) or mixed conifer wood (CW), to support the growth of plants in mine spoils from the abandoned Formosa and Almeda Mines in Oregon. To evaluate the potential for plant establishment in mine tailings, wheat was grown in tailings amended with biochar at rates ranging from 0 to 9% (w/w). Both KB and CW biochars promoted plant establishment by increasing soil pH, increasing concentrations of macro- and micronutrients, and decreasing the solubility and plant uptake of heavy metals. Formosa tailings required at least 4% biochar and Almeda soil required at least 2% biochar to promote healthy wheat growth.
3.Multivariable optimization of the micellar system for the ionic liquid-modified MEKC separation of phenolic acids.
Liu L1, Wu B1, Liu K1, Li CR1, Zhou X1, Li P2, Yang H3. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 Apr 21;126:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.04.027. [Epub ahead of print]
An ionic liquid (IL)-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was proposed for the separation and determination of eight phenolic acids. In order to increase separation efficiency and selectivity, the micelle system consisting of aqueous mixtures of ILs, Tween 20 and borate was optimized using a D-optimal design. A 16-run experimental plan was carried out. The results indicated that the addition of ILs in background electrolyte could significantly alter the electrophoretic behavior and improve the resolution of target analytes. By evaluating the electropherograms obtained, a satisfactory separation condition for all analytes was achieved in 10min with optimized buffer composed of 0.70% (w/w) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 8.1% (w/w) polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) and 10mM sodium borate at pH 9.2. Under these conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r2>0.9969), and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 94.
4.Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System.
Nabavi SF1, Habtemariam S2, Di Lorenzo A3, Sureda A4, Khanjani S5, Nabavi SM6, Daglia M7. Nutrients. 2016 Apr 28;8(5). pii: E248.
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain.