1.Development of a method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for studying the in vitro metabolism of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.
Studzińska S1, Rola R2, Buszewski B2. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016 Feb;408(6):1585-95. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-9266-1. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
Ultra high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the products of the in vitro metabolism of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. These compounds may be used during antisense therapy as synthetic fragments of genes. For this reason, both a sample preparation method and a qualification method were developed during this study. Liquid-liquid extraction, protein or oligonucleotide precipitation, and solid-phase extraction were tested and compared in order to select the method that yielded the highest recoveries. Ion pair chromatography was used for separation while mass spectrometry was applied for metabolite identification. The influence of the type of ion pair reagent used on the resolution and sensitivity was investigated. Results indicated that a mixture of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, N,N-dimethylbutylamine, and methanol was the best mobile phase for maximizing both of these parameters.
2.Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.
Abdallah HM1,2, El-Bassossy H3,4, Mohamed GA5,6, El-Halawany AM7,8, Alshali KZ9, Banjar ZM10. Molecules. 2016 Feb 22;21(2). pii: E251. doi: 10.3390/molecules21020251.
Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent.
3.Inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from the dried branches and leaves of murta (Myrceugenia euosma) on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.
Oikawa N1, Nobushi Y2, Wada T1, Sonoda K1, Okazaki Y3, Tsutsumi S3, Park YK4, Kurokawa M5, Shimba S1, Yasukawa K6. J Nat Med. 2016 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
As obesity is a global health concern the demand for anti-obesity drugs is high. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of the dried branches and leaves of murta (Myrceugenia euosma Legrand, Myrtaceae). A methanol extract of the dried branches and leaves of murta inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Three known flavanones-cryptostrobin (1), pinocembrin (4), and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (6), and three chalcones-2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-methyl-4'-methoxychalcone (2), pinostrobin chalcone (3), and 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (5) were isolated from the active fraction. Structures of these compounds were identified using various spectral data. Each of these compounds also inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. In particular, compound 3 was a more potent inhibitor of triglyceride accumulation than the positive control berberine. Gene expression studies revealed that treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with 3 lowers the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator activator γ2 during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability.
4.The Inhibitory Mechanisms Study of 5,6,4'-Trihydroxy-7,3'-Dimethoxyflavone against the LPS-Induced Macrophage Inflammatory Responses through the Antioxidant Ability.
Wang SH1, Liang CH2, Liang FP3, Ding HY4, Lin SP5, Huang GJ6, Lin WC7, Juang SH8. Molecules. 2016 Jan 22;21(2). pii: E136. doi: 10.3390/molecules21020136.
The whole plant of Anisomeles ovata has been widely used in Taiwan for treating inflammation-related skin and liver diseases, however, the detailed pharmacology mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, one of the major components, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone (5-TDMF), was purified from a methanol extract of Anisomeles ovata. A pharmacological study of this compound suggests that 5-TDMF possesses potent free radical scavenging activity both in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, 5-TDMF reduces nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in LPC-treated RAW 264.7 cells through the attenuation of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Additional experiments suggest that of 5-TDMF interferes with nuclear factor-κB translocation and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These results identify 5-TDMF as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, explain the pharmacologic function of Anisomeles ovata and suggest its great potential as a new anti-inflammatory remedy.