1.Effect of zinc formulations, sodium chloride, and hydroxytyrosol on the growth/no-growth boundaries of table olive related yeasts.
Romero-Gil V1, Rejano-Zapata L2, Garrido-Fernández A1, Arroyo-López FN3. Food Microbiol. 2016 Aug;57:71-80. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.01.007. Epub 2016 Jan 23.
This study uses a mathematical approach to assessing the inhibitory effect of Zn(2)(+)(0-10 mM, obtained from ZnCl2 and ZnSO4) in presence of NaCl (0-8%) and hydroxytyrosol (0-2588 mg/L), on a yeast cocktail formed by species Pichia galeiformis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia manshurica and Candida thaimueangensis obtained from spoilt green olive packages. The logistic/probabilistic models were built in laboratory medium using a total of 1980 responses (1188 for NaCl and 792 for hydroxytyrosol). ZnCl2 showed significantly higher inhibitory effect than ZnSO4 in the presence of both NaCl (p < 0.033) and hydroxytyrosol (p < 0.009). NaCl did not interfere the effect of Zn(2)(+)while hydroxytyrosol, at high levels, had a slight antagonistic effect. According to models, Zn(2)(+)inhibits (p = 0.01) the yeast cocktail in the range 4.5-5.0 mM for ZnCl2, or 8.5-9.5 mM for ZnSO4. Therefore, this work confirms the fungicidal activity of zinc compounds (mainly ZnCl2) in synthetic medium, and also shows that the loss of zinc effectiveness in real green Spanish-style olive packaging is not due to the presence of NaCl or hydroxytyrosol, two of the most abundant chemical compounds in the product.
2.Hydroxytyrosol and its complex forms (secoiridoids) modulate aorta and heart proteome in healthy rats: potential cardio-protective effects.
Catalán Ú1, Rubió L1,2, López de Las Hazas MC2, Herrero P3, Nadal P3, Canela N3, Pedret A1, Motilva MJ2, Solà R1. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600052. [Epub ahead of print]
SCOPE: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in both free and complex forms (secoiridoids; SEC). Proteomics of cardiovascular tissues such as aorta or heart represents a promising tool to uncover the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in healthy animals.
3.Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.
Reddy KV1, Naidu KA2. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016 Jun;35:29-42. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.03.019. Epub 2016 Mar 24.
Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil.