1.Bioactive Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpenoids from the Australian Rainforest Plant Maytenus bilocularis.
Wibowo M1, Levrier C1,2, Sadowski MC2, Nelson CC2, Wang Q3,4, Holst J3,4, Healy PC5, Hofmann A1,6, Davis RA1. J Nat Prod. 2016 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Chemical investigations of the CH2Cl2 extract obtained from the leaves of the Australian rainforest tree Maytenus bilocularis afforded three new dihydro-β-agarofurans, bilocularins A-C (1-3), and six known congeners, namely, celastrine A (4), 1α,6β,8α-triacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (5), 1α,6β-diacetoxy-9α-benzoyloxy-8α-hydroxydihydro-β-agarofuran (6), Ejap-10 (11), 1α,6β-diacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (12), and Ejap-2 (13). The major compound 1 was used in semisynthetic studies to afford four ester derivatives (7-10). The chemical structures of 1-3 were elucidated following analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of bilocularins A (1) and B (2) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP; none of the compounds were active. However, several compounds showed similar potency to the drug efflux pump inhibitor verapamil in reversing the drug resistance of the human leukemia CEM/VCR R cell line.
2.Antibody-Mediated Rejection in a Blood Group A-Transgenic Mouse Model of ABO-Incompatible Heart Transplantation.
Motyka B1, Fisicaro N, Wang SI, Kratochvil A, Labonte K, Tao K, Pearcey J, Marshall T, Mengel M, Sis B, Fan X, dʼApice AJ, Cowan PJ, West LJ. Transplantation. 2016 Apr 26. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: ABO-incompatible (ABOi) organ transplantation is performed owing to unremitting donor shortages. Defining mechanisms of antibody-mediated rejection, accommodation, and tolerance of ABOi grafts is limited by lack of a suitable animal model. We report generation and characterization of a murine model to enable study of immunobiology in the setting of ABOi transplantation.
3.Is Mid-trimester Insulin Resistance Predictive of Subsequent Puerperal Infection? A Secondary Analysis of Randomized Trial Data.
Hughes BL1, Clifton RG2, Hauth JC3, Leveno KJ4, Myatt L5, Reddy UM6, Varner MW7, Wapner RJ8, Mercer BM9, Peaceman AM10, Ramin SM11, Tolosa JE12, Saade G13, Sorokin Y14; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Matern Am J Perinatol. 2016 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Objective The objective of this study was to examine whether there is an association between insulin resistance and subsequent development of puerperal infection by measuring insulin resistance in the mid-trimester using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA:IR). Methods Secondary analysis of low-risk nulliparas enrolled in a multicenter preeclampsia prevention trial. HOMA:IR was measured on fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations among low-risk nulliparas between 22 and 26 weeks' gestation. Median HOMA:IR was compared between women who did and did not develop puerperal infection using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders. Results Of 1,180 women with fasting glucose and insulin available, 121 (10.3%) had a puerperal infection. Median HOMA:IR was higher among those with subsequent puerperal infection (4.3 [interquartile, IQR: 2.2-20.5] vs. 2.6 [IQR: 1.5-6.7], p < 0.0001). After controlling for potentially confounding variables HOMA:IR was only marginally associated with an increased risk of development of puerperal infection, adjusted odds ratio: 1.
4.Continuous treatment of flotation collector wastewater using a membrane bioreactor.
Lin W1, Dai Y1, Wu C2, Xu P1, Ren J1, Sun S1, Li B1. Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(8):1901-9. doi: 10.2166/wst.2016.025.
Aniline aerofloat (DDA) is a widely used material in China and has become a main pollutant in floatation wastewater. In this study, a membrane reactor (MBR) was constructed to continuously treat simulated wastewater contaminated with DDA. The study investigated the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the impact of influent DDA concentration on MBR performance, and analyzed intermediates from the DDA biodegradation pathway and activated sludge transfer pathway. The results showed that a 3 h HRT was an efficient and economical time period for MBR to remove 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA from the simulated wastewater; the chemical oxygen demand reduction rate was 89.9%. DDA concentration negatively impacted MBR performance. MBR performance fluctuated slightly when HRT was 3 h, dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.8 to 5.3 mg/L, pH was between 6.5 and 7.0, and DDA concentrations were at 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA. The transfer pathway in the activated sludge of DDA was through soluble microbial products, loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances, tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances, and finally cell biodegradation.