1.Effect of a β-Hydroxyphosphonate Analogue of ʟ-Carnitine on Insulin-Sensitive and Insulin-Resistant 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Avalos-Soriano A1, De la Cruz-Cordero R, López-Martínez FJ, Rosado JL, Duarte-Vázquez MÁ, Garcia-Gasca T. Pharmacology. 2015;96(3-4):99-106. doi: 10.1159/000430919. Epub 2015 Jul 7.
This study investigated the effect of a β-x200B;hydroxyphosphonate analog of ʟ-carnitine (L-CA) (CAS number: 1220955-x200B;20-3, Component: 1221068-91-2, C12H29NO4PI), (3-Hexanaminium, 1-(dimethoxyphosphinyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N,N,5-x200B;tetramethy-iodide (1:1), (2R, 3S)) on parameters related with type-2 diabetes in an in vitro model. Nontoxic concentrations of L-CA were assayed and compared to commercial ʟ-carnitine effects. L-CA did not affect adipogenesis in normal cells, but an increment of TG accumulation was observed on insulin-resistant adipocytes (80%) when compared with resistant control. L-CA also stimulated glucose analog 2-NBDG uptakes on insulin-resistant adipocytes in a similar way as insulin when compared to insulin-resistant cells. Our results show that the L-CA promoted insulin-like responses on insulin-resistant adipocytes without appreciable pro-adipogenic effect in sensitive adipocytes.
2.α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from a Xylaria feejeensis Associated with Hintonia latiflora.
Rivera-Chávez J1, Figueroa M1, González Mdel C2, Glenn AE, Mata R1. J Nat Prod. 2015 Apr 24;78(4):730-5. doi: 10.1021/np500897y. Epub 2015 Feb 23.
Two new compounds, pestalotin 4'-O-methyl-β-mannopyranoside (1) and 3S,4R-(+)-4-hydroxymellein (2), were isolated from an organic extract of a Xylaria feejeensis, which was isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora. In addition, the known compounds 3S,4S-(+)-4-hydroxymellein (3), 3S-(+)-8-methoxymellein (4), and the quinone derivatives 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (5), 4S,5S,6S-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-5,6-epoxycyclohex-2-en-1-one (6), and 4R,5R-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohexen-2-en-1-one (7) were obtained. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic centers of 1 and 2 was determined using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. In the case of 1, comparison of the experimental and theoretical (3)J6-7 coupling constants provided further evidence for the stereochemical assignments.
3.Phytotoxins produced by Phoma chenopodiicola, a fungal pathogen of Chenopodium album.
Evidente M1, Cimmino A1, Zonno MC2, Masi M1, Berestetskyi A3, Santoro E4, Superchi S4, Vurro M2, Evidente A5. Phytochemistry. 2015 Sep;117:482-8. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.07.008. Epub 2015 Jul 28.
Two phytotoxins were isolated from the liquid culture of Phoma chenopodiicola, a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of Chenopodium album, a common worldwide weed of arable crops. The two phytotoxins appeared to be a new tetrasubstituted furopyran and a new ent-pimaradiene. From the same culture a new tetrasubstituted isocoumarin was also isolated. These compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and HR ESI MS) and chemical methods as 3-(3-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-7aH-furo[2,3-b]pyran-4-yl)-but-2-en-1-ol (chenopodolan D, 1) (1S,2S,3S,4S,5S,9R,10S,12S,13S)-1,3,12-triacetoxy-2,hydroxy-6-oxo-ent-pimara-7(8),15-dien-18-oic acid 2,18-lactone (chenopodolin B, 3), and, 4,5,7-trihydroxy-3-methyl-isochroman-1-one (chenisocoumarin, 2) The absolute configuration of chenisocoumarin was assigned by applying an advanced Mosher's method through the derivatization of its secondary hydroxylated carbon C-4, while that of chenopodolan D by application of quantum mechanical calculations of chiroptical (ECD and ORD) properties.
4.Carbonyl reduction in the biosynthesis of a male sex pheromone secreted by the grape borer Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus.
Iwabuchi K1, Arakawa M, Kiyota R, Hoshino K, Ando T. J Chem Ecol. 2014 Oct;40(10):1146-51. doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0508-z. Epub 2014 Oct 10.
Males of the cerambycid beetle Xylotrechus pyrrhoderus release a mixture of (S)-2-hydroxy-3-octanone [(S)-1] and (2S,3S)-2,3-octanediol [(2S,3S)-2] as a sex pheromone that attracts conspecific females. The chemical structures of these pheromone components include a common motif and are assumed to be biosynthetically related. Here, we show that deuterated (S)-1, applied on the cuticle of a pronotal pheromone gland, was converted into (2S,3S)-2, that included deuterium atoms, but a reverse conversion did not take place. These results reveal a carbonyl reductase to be active in the pheromone gland, and that the ketol is a biosynthetic precursor of the diol. Males did not produce (R)-1; however, deuterated (R)-1 was converted into (2R,3R)-2, indicating an attack of the enzyme from the opposite side of the hydroxyl group at the 2-position. Furthermore, to understand the substrate specificity of the enzyme, racemates of 2-hydroxy-3-hexanone and 2-hydroxy-3-decanone were synthesized and applied to the gland.