1.Preexposure to salty and sour taste enhances conditioned taste aversion to novel sucrose.
Flores VL1, Moran A2, Bernstein M3, Katz DB4. Learn Mem. 2016 Apr 15;23(5):221-8. doi: 10.1101/lm.040360.115. Print 2016 May.
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty-the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces its associability. The effect of exposure to tastes other than the CS has, in contrast, received little investigation. Here, we exposed rats to sodium chloride (N) and citric acid (C), either before or within a conditioning session involving novel sucrose (S). Presentation of this taste array within the conditioning session weakened the resultant S aversion, as expected. The opposite effect, however, was observed when exposure to the taste array was provided in sessions that preceded conditioning: such experience enhanced the eventual S aversion-a result that was robust to differences in CS delivery method and number of tastes presented in conditioning sessions.
2.Multiresidue determination of 29 pesticide residues in pepper through a modified QuEChERS method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Liu M1,2, Xie Y1,2, Li H1,2, Meng X1,2, Zhang Y1,2, Hu D1,2, Zhang K1,2, Xue W1,2. Biomed Chromatogr. 2016 Apr 13. doi: 10.1002/bmc.3742. [Epub ahead of print]
This study describes the development and use of a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine 29 pesticide residues in green, red and dehydrated red peppers. Pesticides were extracted with acetonitrile (1% acetic acid), partitioned with sodium chloride and purified with primary secondary amino and octadecyl silane in acetone. The QuEChERS extraction conditions were optimized, and the matrix effects that might influence recoveries were evaluated and minimized using matrix-matched calibration curves. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves for 29 pesticides showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.1-10 µg/mL with determination coefficient R2 > 0.998. The limits of quantification of the 29 pesticides were 0.006-0.06 mg/kg for green pepper, 0.005-0.039 mg/kg for red pepper and 0.014-0.25 mg/kg for dehydrated red pepper.
3.A hydrometallurgical process for recovering total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors.
Prabaharan G1, Barik SP2, Kumar B1. Waste Manag. 2016 Apr 12. pii: S0956-053X(16)30173-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]
A hydrometallurgical process for recovering the total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors was investigated. The process parameters such as time, temperature, acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and other reagents (amount of zinc dust and sodium formate) were optimized. Base metals such as Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni are leached out in two stages using HCl in stage 1 and HCl with H2O2 in stage 2. More than 99% of leaching efficiency for base metals (Cu, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sn) was achieved. Precious metals such as Au and Pd are leached out using aquaregia and nitric acid was used for the leaching of Ag. Base metals (Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni) are recovered by selective precipitation using H2SO4 and NaOH solution. In case of precious metals, Au and Pd from the leach solution were precipitated out using sodium metabisulphite and sodium formate, respectively. Sodium chloride was used for the precipitation of Ag from leach solution.
4.Tumor necrosis factor reduces Plasmodium falciparum growth and activates calcium signaling in human malaria parasites.
Cruz LN1, Wu Y2, Ulrich H3, Craig AG2, Garcia CR1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Apr 11. pii: S0304-4165(16)30094-0. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.04.003. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium has a complex biology including the ability to interact with host signals modulating their function through cellular machinery. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) elicits diverse cellular responses including effects in malarial pathology and increased infected erythrocyte cytoadherence. As TNF levels are raised during P. falciparum infection we have investigated whether it has an effect on the parasite asexual stage.