1.A new route to 7-substituted derivatives of n-[4-(2-[2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7H-pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidin-5-yl]ethyl)benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid [ALIMTA (LY231514, MTA)].
Taylor EC1, Liu B. J Org Chem. 2001 Jun 1;66(11):3726-38.
Alkylation of various primary amines with crotyl bromide, followed by DMAP-promoted acylation with methyl malonyl chloride to 4 and then manganic triacetate dihydrate/cupric acetate induced radical cyclization, gave 1-substituted-4-vinyl-3-carbomethoxy-2-pyrrolidinones (5). Thiation to the thiolactams 6 and guanidine cyclization then gave a series of 2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-5-vinyl-7-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines (7). Palladium-catalyzed C-C coupling with diethyl 4-iodobenzoylglutamate led in one step via an unexpected redox reaction to the diethyl esters 9 of a series of 7-substituted derivatives of ALIMTA (LY231514, MTA), from which the target analogues 10 were readily prepared by saponification. Attempted deprotection at position 7 was successful in only one case (9d, R = CH(2)C(6)H(3)(OMe)(2)(-3',4'), which resulted in a known pentultimate precursor (9, R = H) of ALIMTA. The 7-substituted derivatives 10 proved to be inactive in vitro as inhibitors of cell division.
2.Priming effects of lipopolysaccharide on UTP-induced arachidonic acid release in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Lin WW1. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Feb 19;321(1):121-7.
Stimulation of mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages with UTP activates both the inositol phosphate signal transduction pathway and the phospholipase A2 pathway. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between bacterial lipopolysaccharide and UTP in these two systems and the underlying mechanisms involved. While the UTP-induced release of arachidonic acid was only 2.9-fold that in controls, priming the cells with 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide for 1 h before UTP treatment resulted in 9.2-fold arachidonic acid release upon stimulation with UTP. Lipopolysaccharide priming was both concentration- and time-dependent with a peak effect after 1 h treatment at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. Lipopolysaccharide treatment affect neither the basal nor the UTP-stimulated inositol phosphate formation and [Ca2+]i rise. Pretreatment of the cells with staurosporine, calphostin, N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide H-7), genistein or K-252a led marked inhibition of the priming effect, suggesting that both protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in the lipopolysaccharide effect.
3.The inhibitor of phagocytosis, O-phospho-L-serine, suppresses Müller glia proliferation and cone cell regeneration in the light-damaged zebrafish retina.
Bailey TJ1, Fossum SL, Fimbel SM, Montgomery JE, Hyde DR. Exp Eye Res. 2010 Nov;91(5):601-12. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2010.07.017. Epub 2010 Aug 7.
The damaged zebrafish retina replaces lost neurons through a regenerative response that initiates with the asymmetric cell division of Müller glia to produce neuronal progenitor cells that proliferate and migrate to the damaged retinal layer, where they differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Because Müller glia are known to phagocytose apoptotic retinal cells during development, we tested if Müller glia engulfed apoptotic rod cell bodies in light-damaged retinas. After 24h of constant intense light, damaged retinas revealed both a strong nuclear TUNEL signal in photoreceptors and a weak cytoplasmic TUNEL signal in Müller glia, although Müller glial apoptosis is not observed in the light-damaged retina. Light damage of a rod-specific transgenic reporter line, Tg(XlRho:EGFP)(fl1), resulted in some Müller glia containing both TUNEL signal and EGFP, which indicated that this subset of Müller glia engulfed apoptotic photoreceptor cell bodies.
4.Calcium release via activation of presynaptic IP3 receptors contributes to kainate-induced IPSC facilitation in rat neocortex.
Mathew SS1, Hablitz JJ. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Jul;55(1):106-16. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.05.005. Epub 2008 May 14.
We examined the mechanisms of kainate (KA) induced modulation of GABA release in rat prefrontal cortex. Pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were recorded from visually identified layer II/III pyramidal cells using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. KA produced an increase in evoked IPSC amplitude at low nanomolar concentrations (100-500 nM). The frequency but not the amplitude of miniature (m) IPSCs was also increased. The GluR5 subunit selective agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA) caused an increase in mIPSC frequency whereas (3S,4aR,6S,8aR)-6-(4-carboxyphenyl)methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY382884), a selective GluR5 subunit antagonist, inhibited this facilitation. Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTx) blocked the effect of KA, indicating involvement of Ca(2+)-permeable GluR5 receptors. No IPSC facilitation was seen when Ca(2+) was omitted from the bathing solution.