1.Oxidation of 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine into isodialuric acid, dialuric acid, and hydantoin products.
Rivière J1, Bergeron F, Tremblay S, Gasparutto D, Cadet J, Wagner JR. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Jun 2;126(21):6548-9.
Oxidation products of cytosine, including 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil, are highly susceptible to subsequent oxidation. Here, the oxidation products of 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine have been studied by NMR and MS analyses. The initial products were diastereomers of isodialuric acid nucleoside. These products subsequently decomposed into corresponding dialuric acid derivatives at neutral pH. The position of the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, at C5 and C6 for isodialuric acid and at C6 and C5 for dialuric acid derivatives, respectively, was determined by 1H- and 13C NMR analyses. In addition, these analyses revealed that the carbonyl groups of both isodaluric and dialuric acid derivatives exist in their fully hydrated form in aqueous solution. Finally, the dialuric acid derivatives were observed to undergo subsequent decomposition into the corresponding 5-hydroxyhydantoin derivatives. Studies of a trinucleotide containing 5-hydroxyuracil suggest that the reactions described herein for the monomer can be extrapolated to DNA.
2.Profiles of interaction of R(+)/S(-)-zacopride and anxiolytic agents in a mouse model.
Barnes NM1, Cheng CH, Costall B, Ge J, Kelly ME, Naylor RJ. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Jul 21;218(1):91-100.
The mouse black and white test box was used to measure changes in behaviour in an aversive situation where the administration of R(+)-zacopride (but not S(-)-zacopride) alone decreased aversive responding to the white area. A similar anxiolytic profile of action was observed using parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), whose effects were antagonised by a co-treatment with R(+)-zacopride and reversed by S(-)-zacopride to an exacerbation of the aversive response. An anxiolytic profile of action was also observed using ondansetron, granisetron, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, ritanserin, 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin), E4424 (2-[4-[4-(4-chloro-l-pyrazoyl)butyl]-l-piperazinyl]-pyrimidine), umepsirone, DuP753 (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxy-methyl-1-[2(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl)methyl)]-imidazole), SQ29,852 ((S)-1-[6-amino-2[hydroxy)(4-phenyl-butyl)phosphinyl]-oxy)-1- nexy]-2-proline), devazepide and guanfacine, and this was retained following co-treatment with PCPA.
3.Oxidation of uric acid. 4. Synthesis, structure, and diabetogenic action of 5-imino-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione salts and their alloxan-like covalent adducts.
Poje M, Rocić B, Sikirica M, Vicković I, Bruvo M. J Med Chem. 1983 Jun;26(6):861-4.
Three synthetic routes to salts of 5-amino-5-hydroxy-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione (10) are described. The key reactions involved acid-catalyzed cleavage of 5-amino-5-ureido-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione (7), conversion of uramil (8) to dehydrouramil (9) and subsequent hydration, and the condensation of alloxan (5) with ammonium salts. The carbinol ammonium salt structure 10a was unambiguously established by X-ray crystallography. New alloxan-like compounds 7, 9, and 10 were evaluated for diabetogenic activity in rats. Compound 7 was inactive, whereas compounds 9 and 10 showed the highest activity comparable to that of streptozotocin (12).
4.In vitro metabolism of ACNU, 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea hydrochloride, a water-soluble antitumor nitrosourea.
Nishigaki T, Nakamura K, Tanaka M. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1985 Jun;8(6):409-16.
In vitro decomposition of ACNU, 3-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitros ourea hydrochloride, in various conditions was studied with the use of the 14C-labeled compound. Metabolite A, 3,4-dihydro-7-methylpyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (an intramolecular cyclized product), was formed spontaneously in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with simultaneous liberation of the alkylating moiety. With rat liver enzyme preparations, formation of three metabolites was observed. Those were metabolite B, 1-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-3-(2-chloroethyl)urea (a denitrosated product), metabolite C, 1-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl]-5-hydroxy-3-nitroso-2-imidazolidinone (a product via oxidative dechlorination), and metabolite D, 1-[(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl]-5-hydroxy-2-imidazolidinone (a denitrosated product of metabolite C). Formation of metabolite B was catalyzed with both cytosolic and microsomal enzymes, not inhibited with SKF-525A, and partly dependent on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).