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1.Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.
Mutsuga M1, Wakui C, Kawamura Y, Maitani T. Food Addit Contam. 2002 Nov;19(11):1097-103.
In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6).
2.Interaction between thiol-modifying agents and P1075, a K(ATP) channel opener, in rat isolated aorta.
Linde C1, Löffler C, Kessler C, Quast U. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1997 Oct;356(4):467-74.
In vascular smooth muscle, openers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K(ATP) channels), such as P1075 (N-cyano-N'-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)-N"-3-pyridylguanidine), produce relaxation. In this study we have investigated the effects of thiol-modifying agents on the binding of P1075 and on the 86Rb+ efflux stimulating and vasorelaxant effects of the opener in rat aortic rings. The increase in 86Rb+ efflux induced by P1075 was taken as a qualitative measure of K+ channel opening. The hydrophilic SH-group-oxidizing substance, thimerosal (1 to 100 microM), abolished specific binding of [3H]-P1075 with an IC50 value of 7.6+/-1.2 microM; at 30 microM, the half time for inhibition was 38 min. Two other thioloxidizing agents, PMB (4-hydroxy-mercuribenzoic acid) and DTBNP (2,2'-dithio-bis(5-nitropyridine)), inhibited binding up to 86% and 44%, respectively. The disulphide bond reducing substance, DTT (1,4-dithiothreitol, 0.1 to 1 mM), reduced [3H]-P1075 binding by up to 20% and partially reversed the inhibitory effect of thimerosal.
3.Novel mechanisms of biotransformation of p-tert-amylphenol by bacteria and fungi with special degradation abilities and simultaneous detoxification of the disinfectant.
Schlueter R1, Röder A, Czekalski N, Gliesche D, Mikolasch A, Schauer F. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jan;98(1):373-84. doi: 10.1007/s00253-013-5312-0. Epub 2013 Oct 26.
The compound p-tert-amylphenol (p-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenol) is a widely used disinfectant belonging to the group of short branched-chain alkylphenols. It is produced in or imported into the USA with more than one million pounds per year and can be found in the environment in surface water, sediments, and soil. We have investigated for the first time the biotransformation of this disinfectant and the accumulation of metabolites by five bacterial strains, three yeast strains, and three filamentous fungi, selected because of their ability to transform either aromatic or branched-chain compounds. Of the 11 microorganisms tested, one yeast strain and three bacteria could not transform the disinfectant despite of a very low concentration applied (0.005%). None of the other seven organisms was able to degrade the short branched alkyl chain of p-tert-amylphenol. However, two yeast strains, two filamentous fungi, and two bacterial strains attacked the aromatic ring system of the disinfectant via the hydroxylated intermediate 4-(1,1-dimethyl-propyl)-benzene-1,2-diol resulting in two hitherto unknown ring fission products with pyran and furan structures, 4-(1,1-dimethyl-propyl)-6-oxo-6-H-pyran-2-carboxylic acid and 2-[3-(1,1-dimethyl-propyl)-5-oxo-2H-furan-2-yl]acetic acid.