1.In vivo production of nitric oxide in rats after administration of hydroxyurea.
Jiang J1, Jordan SJ, Barr DP, Gunther MR, Maeda H, Mason RP. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Dec;52(6):1081-6.
The metabolism of nitrovasodilators such as glyceryl trinitrate and nitroprusside provides the active moiety of these drugs (that is, nitric oxide). This process is not limited to the known nitrovasodilators, but also occurs with nitroaromatic antimicrobials. Here we report that the administration of hydroxyurea, an antitumor drug, to rats at pharmacological doses formed detectable nitrosyl hemoglobin, which increased with dose. At higher doses, nitrosyl hemoprotein complexes could also be detected in liver tissue. [15N]hydroxyurea was synthesized and compared with [14N]hydroxyurea. These observations verified that nitric oxide detected as nitrosyl hemoglobin or nitrosyl hemoprotein complexes in rats was the result of the metabolism of hydroxyurea. The time course and dose-dependence of nitric oxide generation were also investigated. Hydroxyurea's antineoplastic activity is caused by its direct action on ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis.
2.Studies of N-hydroxy-N'-aminoguanidine derivatives by nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and as ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors.
Tai AW, Lien EJ, Moore EC, Chun Y, Roberts JD. J Med Chem. 1983 Sep;26(9):1326-9.
Hydroxyguanidine, with the imino group of guanidine and the hydroxyamino group of hydroxyurea, has functional groups believed to be important for both anticancer and antiviral activities (Adamson, R.H. Nature (London) 1972, 236, 400-401). Three new N-hydroxy-N'-aminoguanidine derivatives have been synthesized and found to be 20-30 times more active than the hydroxyguanidine itself as inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase from rat Novikoff tumors (Tai, W.A.; Lai, M.M.; Lien, E.J. "Novel N-Hydroxyguanidine Derivatives as Antiviral Agents", North American Medicinal Chemistry Symposium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, June 20-24, 1982; Abstr, p 144). The character of the tautomeric equilibria, the pKa values, and the protonation sites of these hydroxyguanidine derivatives have been determined by 15N NMR spectroscopy.
3.Formation of hybrid nucleosomes cantaining new and old histones.
Russev G, Hancock R. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Aug 25;9(16):4129-37.
5 mM hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits DNA synthesis in mouse P815 cells by 94-97% in less than 1 hr. Nevertheless, histone synthesis continues and newly-synthesised histones are incorporated into non-replicating chromatin at a rate of about 20% of that in control exponentially-growing cells. To study the organization of these histones in chromatin P815 cells were treated with 5 mM HU in medium containing dense (15N, 13C, 2H) - substituted amino acids. After inhibition of DNA synthesis, newly-synthesised histones were labelled with (3H)-arginine. The cells were harvested 90 min later, and mono- and oligonucleosomes were prepared and analysed on metrizamide-triethanolamine (MA-TEA density gradients. Analysis of the distribution of 3H-labelled histones in these gradients shows that they are incorporated into hybrid mononucleosomes containing both new and old histones. It is also shown that these hybrid nucleosomes are not randomly distributed, but show a certain tendency to be clustered in certain chromatin regions.