1.Comparative studies of pharmacokinetics and anticoagulatory effect in rats after oral administration of Frankincense and its processed products.
Pan YN1, Liang XX1, Niu LY1, Wang YN1, Tong X1, Hua HM1, Zheng J2, Meng DY3, Liu XQ4. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Aug 22;172:118-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.029. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Frankincense (FRA), Ruxiang, is the resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw and Boswellia bhaw-dajiana Birdw which has been used for centuries as formulas to improve the circulation and to relieve pain against carbuncles. Stir-fried Frankincense (SFF) and vinegar processed Frankincense (VPF) are two major processed Frankincense, and the processing procedures reportedly enhance the curative efficacy or reduce the side effects of FRA. This paper describes the comparisons in plasma pharmacokinetic behaviors of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) in FRA and its processed products, and their effects on coagulation factors and blood clotting tetrachoric, using an acute cold blood-stasis animal model after oral administration of FRA, SFF, and VPF.
2.Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.
Catanzaro D1, Rancan S1, Orso G2, Dall'Acqua S1, Brun P3, Giron MC1, Carrara M1, Castagliuolo I3, Ragazzi E1, Caparrotta L1, Montopoli M1. PLoS One. 2015 May 8;10(5):e0125375. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125375. eCollection 2015.
Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively.
3.Chemical constituents from twigs of Euonymus alatus.
Zhang L, Zou Y, Ye XS, Zhang J, Zhang WK, Li P. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2015 Jul;40(13):2612-6.
To investigate the chemical compounds from the twigs of Euonymus alatus, nine compounds were isolated and identified as(+)-delta(2,11)-enaminousnic acid(1), 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid(2), acetyl 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid(3), camaldulenic acid(4), betulinic acid(5), 6beta-hydroxy-stigmast-4-en-3-one(6), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone(7), ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate(8), 4,4'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl(9). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product. Compounds 2-4 and 7-9 were obtained from the Euonymus genus for the first time. In vitro study showed that compounds 2 and 3 showed significant anti-tumor activities to BEL-7402 and HCT-8 at the concentration of 10 mg x L(-1). The inhibition rate of compound 2 was 61.78% and 68.29%, whereas the inhibition rate of compound 3 had reached to 70.91% and 84.07%.
4.Boswellic acids target the human immune system-modulating antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
Henkel A1, Tausch L2, Pillong M3, Jauch J4, Karas M5, Schneider G6, Werz O7. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Dec;102:53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.09.002. Epub 2015 Sep 8.
The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is the sole member of the human cathelicidin family with immune system-modulating properties and roles in autoimmune disease development. Small molecules able to interact with LL-37 and to modulate its functions have not been described yet. Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpene acids that are bioactive principles of frankincense extracts used as anti-inflammatory remedies. Although various anti-inflammatory modes of action have been proposed for BAs, the pharmacological profile of these compounds is still incompletely understood. Here, we describe the identification of human LL-37 as functional target of BAs. In unbiased target fishing experiments using immobilized BAs as bait and human neutrophils as target source, LL-37 was identified as binding partner assisted by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Thermal stability experiments using circular dichroism spectroscopy confirm direct interaction between BAs and LL-37.