1.Behavioral responses of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to green leaf volatiles of Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata.
Reddy GV1, Guerrero A. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Dec;48(12):6025-9.
Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) from Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata L. have been identified as 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexen-3-ol, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. No isothiocyanates were found in the extract. The activity of these chemicals has been determined on mated and unmated males and females of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella in the laboratory (wind tunnel) and in the field. On unmated males, mixtures of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol with the pheromone induced attractant/arresting behavior in 80-100% of the males tested, significantly higher than the effect induced by the pheromone alone. On mated males and unmated females the effect of the GLVs alone or in combination with the pheromone was poor, while on mated females these compounds elicited upwind flight and arresting behavior in 40-60% of the females assayed.
2.Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) response to olfactory attractant- and light emitting diode-modified Mosquito Magnet X (MM-X) traps.
Mann RS1, Kaufman PE, Butler JF. J Med Entomol. 2009 Sep;46(5):1052-61.
Mosquito Magnet-X traps were modified for use with blue, green, red, and blue-green-red light-emitting diodes and olfactory attractants to determine the response of Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett) (Diptera: Psychodidae) field populations to these attractants. Red and blue-green-red-baited traps captured the highest numbers of Lu. shannoni and Lu. vexator, respectively, although, there were no significant differences between the colors. Baiting the traps with CO, attracted significantly higher numbers of Lu. shannoni but showed no effect on Lu. vexator capture. In comparison with CO, alone, Lu. shannoni preferred 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexen-3-ol (0.05 g per trap) in combination with CO.
3.Stereochemistry of the biotransformation of 1-hexene and 2-methyl-1-hexene with rat liver microsomes and purified P450s of rats and humans.
Chiappe C1, De Rubertis A, Amato G, Gervasi PG. Chem Res Toxicol. 1998 Dec;11(12):1487-93.
The epoxidation of 1-hexene (1a) and 2-methyl-1-hexene (1b), two hydrocarbons present in the ambient air as pollutants, is catalyzed by some human and rat P450 enzymes. The enantioselectivities of these processes, when the reactions were carried out using rat and human liver microsomal preparations, were modest and dependent on both P450 composition and substrate concentrations. Various P450 isoforms (rat P450 2B1 and human P450 2C10 and 2A6) catalyzed the double bond oxidation of 1a and 1b with different product enantioselectivities. In the case of 1a, a moderately enantioselective hydroxylation at the allylic C(3) with the formation of 1-hexen-3-ol (4a) by microsomes from control or preinduced rats was also observed. The oxidation of this metabolite was, in turn, catalyzed by rat liver microsomes and mainly by rat P450 2C11, leading exclusively to the formation of 1-hexen-3-one, with no double bond epoxidation being observed. The stereochemical course of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxy alcohols, threo-(+/-)- and erythro-(+/-)-1, 2-epoxyhexan-3-ol, theoretically expected to be formed from 4a, has been investigated.
4.Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge.
Kline DL1, Bernier UR, Hogsette JA. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2012 Jun;28(2):123-7.
Synthetic blends of chemicals identified previously from human skin emanations were evaluated against mosquito and biting fly populations at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet-Experimental traps were baited with the Red (400 ml acetone: 10 ml 1-hexen-3-ol:10 ml 1-octen-3-ol), Blue (400 ml acetone: 1 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml glycolic acid), or Green blend (400 ml acetone:1.5 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml dimethyl disulfide) plus CO2 or with CO2 alone (control). A relative index of efficacy was determined by dividing each mean blend trap catch by the mean control trap catch. Five mosquitoes (Aedes infirmatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ae. triseriatus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus), 2 ceratopogonid (Culicoides floridensis and C. furens), and 1 tabanid (Diachlorus ferrugatus) and phlebotomine (Lutzomyia shannoni) species were trapped. The Red blend + CO2 treatment significantly increased collections of Ae.