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1.Determination of peptides and amino acids from wool and beer with sensitive fluorescent reagent 2-(9-carbazole)-ethyl chloroformate by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromotography and liquid chromotography mass spectrometry.
You J1, Shan Y, Zhen L, Zhang L, Zhang Y. Anal Biochem. 2003 Feb 1;313(1):17-27.
A new method for the sensitive determination of amino acids and peptides using the tagging reagent 2-(9-carbazole)-ethyl chloroformate (CEOC) with fluorescence (FL) detection has been developed. Identification of derivatives was carried out by liquid chromotography mass spectrometry. The chromophore in the 2-(9-fluorenyl)-ethyl chloroformate (FMOC) reagent was replaced by carbazole, which resulted in a sensitive fluorescence lerivatizing agent CEOC. CEOC can easily and quickly label peptides and amino acids. Derivatives are stable enough to be efficiently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Studies on derivatization demonstrate excellent derivative yields over the pH range 8.8-10.0. Maximal yields close to 100% are observed with three- to fourfold molar reagent excess. Derivatives exhibit strong fluorescence and allow direct injection of the reaction mixture with no significant disturbance from the major fluorescent reagent degradation by-products, such as 2-(9-carbazole)-ethanol and bis-(2-(9-carbazole)-ethyl) carbonate.
2.Determination of amines using 2-(11H-benzo[a]carbazol-11-yl) ethyl chloroformate (BCEC-Cl) as labeling reagent by HPLC with fluorescence detection and identification with APCI/MS.
You J1, Zhao W, Liu L, Zhao X, Suo Y, Wang H, Li Y, Ding C. Talanta. 2007 May 15;72(3):914-25. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2006.12.020. Epub 2006 Dec 20.
A pre-column derivatization method for the sensitive determination of amines using a labeling reagent 2-(11H-benzo[a]-carbazol-11-yl) ethyl chloroformate (BCEC-Cl) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed. Identification of derivatives was carried out by LC/APCI/MS in positive-ion mode. The chromophore of 1,2-benzo-3,4-dihydrocarbazole-9-ethyl chloroformate (BCEOC-Cl) reagent was replaced by 2-(11H-benzo[a]-carbazol-11-yl) ethyl functional group, which resulted in a sensitive fluorescence derivatizing reagent BCEC-Cl. BCEC-Cl could easily and quickly label amines. Derivatives were stable enough to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC and showed an intense protonated molecular ion corresponding m/z [M+H](+) under APCI/MS in positive-ion mode. The collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion formed characteristic fragment ions at m/z 261.8 and m/z 243.8 corresponding to the cleavages of CH(2)O-CO and CH(2)-OCO bonds.
3.In-capillary derivatization with (-)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate as chiral labeling agent for the electrophoretic separation of amino acids.
Fradi I1, Farcas E2, Saïd AB3, Yans ML2, Lamalle C2, Somsen GW4, Prior A4, de Jong GJ4, Kallel M3, Crommen J2, Servais AC2, Fillet M5. J Chromatogr A. 2014 Oct 10;1363:338-47. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2014.07.022. Epub 2014 Jul 16.
An original micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using in-capillary derivatization with a chiral labeling reagent was developed for the separation of amino acid (AA) derivatives. The potential of (-)-1-(9-fluorenyl)-ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) as in-capillary derivatization agent is described for the first time. Several parameters for in-capillary derivatization and subsequent MEKC separation were systematically investigated using experimental designs. Firstly experimental conditions for in-capillary derivatization were optimized using face-centered central composite design (FCCD). Mixing voltage and time as well as concentration of the labeling solution were investigated. Efficient labeling was achieved by sequential injection of AAs and FLEC labeling solution followed by the application of a voltage of 0.2 kV for 570 s. The background electrolyte (BGE) composition was then optimized in order to achieve selectivity. A FCCD was performed with two factors, namely the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration and the percentage of propan-2-ol (IPA).