1.Control and Monitoring of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated With Novel High-Load, Low-Density "Meso" Dispensers of Sex Pheromone and Pear Ester.
Light DM1. Environ Entomol. 2016 Mar 27. pii: nvw017. [Epub ahead of print]
Low-density per ha "meso" dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, pheromone of codling moth,Cydia pomonella(L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone alone for mating disruption control in walnut orchards receiving no insecticide sprays. Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone alone (Ph meso) were applied at 50 ha-1and compared with mesos combining codlemone and pear ester (Ph + PE meso) at 25 and 50 ha-1 Various lures containing pear ester (PE), Ph-PE combo, and an experimental codlemone plus (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene lure were tested alone and with acetic acid (AA) lures for moth capture efficacy. Male moth capture in pheromone traps was significantly reduced by 88% in Ph meso plots and 96% in Ph + PE meso plots versus control plots. Moth capture in Ph-PE combo traps was significantly reduced for both sexes in all meso plots. Harvest damage by both the codling moth and the secondary pest, navel orangeworm,Amyelois transitella(Walker), was significantly lower in all meso treatment plots compared with damage in control plots.
2.Responses of parasitoids to volatiles induced by Chilo partellus oviposition on teosinte, a wild ancestor of maize.
Mutyambai DM1, Bruce TJ, Midega CA, Woodcock CM, Caulfield JC, Van Den Berg J, Pickett JA, Khan ZR. J Chem Ecol. 2015 Apr;41(4):323-9. doi: 10.1007/s10886-015-0570-1. Epub 2015 May 6.
Maize, a genetically diverse crop, is the domesticated descendent of its wild ancestor, teosinte. Recently, we have shown that certain maize landraces possess a valuable indirect defense trait not present in commercial hybrids. Plants of these landraces release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract both egg [Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)] and larval [Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)] parasitoids in response to stemborer egg deposition. In this study, we tested whether this trait also exists in the germplasm of wild Zea species. Headspace samples were collected from plants exposed to egg deposition by Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths and unexposed control plants. Four-arm olfactometer bioassays with parasitic wasps, T. bournieri and C. sesamiae, indicated that both egg and larval parasitoids preferred HIPVs from plants with eggs in four of the five teosinte species sampled.
3.Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.
Knight AL1, Hilton R, Basoalto E, Stelinski LL. Environ Entomol. 2014 Dec;43(6):1628-40. doi: 10.1603/EN14153. Epub 2014 Sep 29.
Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth.
4.A P212121 polymorph of (+)-clusianone.
Vaneesa Nagalingam S1, Wong Pik Ching J1, Khaled Bin Break M2, Tahir MI3, Khoo TJ1. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2013 Nov 23;69(Pt 12):o1799-800. doi: 10.1107/S1600536813031036. eCollection 2013.
The title compound, C33H42O4 [systematic name: (1S,5S,7R)-3-benzoyl-4-hy-droxy-8,8-dimethyl-1,5,7-tris-(3-methyl-but-2--enyl)bi-cyclo-[3.3.1]nona-3-ene-2,9-dione], has a central bi-cyclo-[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione surrounded by tetra-prenyl-ated and benzoyl groups. The compound was recrystallized several times in methanol using both a slow evaporation method and with a crystal-seeding technique. This subsequently produced diffraction-quality crystals which crystallize in the ortho-rhom-bic space group P212121, in contrast to a previous report of a structure determination in the Pna21 space group [McCandlish et al. (1976 ▶). Acta Cryst. B32, 1793-1801]. The title compound has a melting point of 365-366 K, and a specific rotation [α](20) value of +51.94°. A strong intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, mol-ecules are assembled in the ab plane by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.