1.Subnanomolar dopamine D3 receptor antagonism coupled to moderate D2 affinity results in favourable antipsychotic-like activity in rodent models: II. behavioural characterisation of RG-15.
Gyertyán I1, Sághy K, Laszy J, Elekes O, Kedves R, Gémesi LI, Pásztor G, Zájer-Balázs M, Kapás M, Agai Csongor E, Domány G, Kiss B, Szombathelyi Z. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008 Nov;378(5):529-39. doi: 10.1007/s00210-008-0311-x. Epub 2008 Jun 12.
RG-15 (trans-N-[4-[2-[4-(3-cyano-5-trifluoromethyl -phenyl) -piperazine -1 -yl] -ethyl] -cyclohexyl] -3 -pyridinesulfonic amide dihydro-chloride), is a highly selective dopamine D3/D2 receptor antagonist with subnanomolar affinity for the D3 receptor and nanomolar affinity for the D2 receptor. We found that RG-15 showed a good oral bioavailability (54%) and high brain levels (approx. 900 ng/g) in rats and demonstrated antipsychotic efficacy in amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and conditioned avoidance response tests in rats, yielding ED50 (median effective dose) values of 8.6 and 12 mg/kg orally, respectively. At six- to eightfold higher doses, RG-15 blocked spontaneous motor activity, while a 30 mg/kg dose of the compound caused an increase in the home-cage motility of rats. The drug did not produce catalepsy up to 160 mg/kg oral dose; moreover, it inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy in the range 15-60 mg/kg. RG-15 (10 mg/kg orally) restored the impaired learning performance of scopolamine- or diazepam-treated rats in a water-labyrinth paradigm.
2.Microcrystalline identification of selected designer drugs.
Elie L1, Baron M, Croxton R, Elie M. Forensic Sci Int. 2012 Jan 10;214(1-3):182-8. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.08.005. Epub 2011 Sep 1.
A microcrystalline test for the detection of 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI) using aqueous solutions of mercury chloride is described. Each of the compounds investigated formed specific drug-reagent crystals within minutes. The uniqueness of the test was confirmed by comparison of the microcrystalline response to that of other psychoactive stimulants and a common cutting agent. The limit of detection and cut-off levels for reference standards were established to 3 g/L and 5 g/L for mephedrone, 0.5 g/L for MDAI and 0.2 g/L and 0.3 g/L for BZP, respectively. Various mixtures of standards of either mephedrone, BZP or MDAI combined with caffeine were investigated for their microcrystalline response. Results showed that simultaneous detection of drug and cutting agent was possible with the concentrations tested but were dependant on the ratio of drug to cutting agent. BZP could be detected alongside caffeine from as low as 20% (v/v), MDAI from 40% (v/v) and mephedrone from 50% (v/v) and higher.