1.Molecular Basis of the Receptor Interactions of Polysialic Acid (polySia), polySia Mimetics, and Sulfated Polysaccharides.
Zhang R1,2, Loers G3, Schachner M3,4, Boelens R5, Wienk H5, Siebert S1, Eckert T6,7, Kraan S8, Rojas-Macias MA6, Lütteke T6, Galuska SP9, Scheidig A2, Petridis AK10, Liang S11, Billeter M12, Schauer R13, Steinmeyer J14, Schröder JM15, Siebert HC16. ChemMedChem. 2016 May 2. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201500609. [Epub ahead of print]
Polysialic acid (polySia) and polySia glycomimetic molecules support nerve cell regeneration, differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. With a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, as well as data mining and molecular modeling techniques, it is possible to correlate specific ligand-receptor interactions with biochemical processes and in vivo studies that focus on the potential therapeutic impact of polySia, polySia glycomimetics, and sulfated polysaccharides in neuronal diseases. With this strategy, the receptor interactions of polySia and polySia mimetics can be understood on a submolecular level. As the HNK-1 glycan also enhances neuronal functions, we tested whether similar sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides from seaweed could be suitable, in addition to polySia, for finding potential new routes into patient care focusing on an improved cure for various neuronal diseases. The knowledge obtained here on the structural interplay between polySia or sulfated polysaccharides and their receptors can be exploited to develop new drugs and application routes for the treatment of neurological diseases and dysfunctions.
2.Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.
Syamsuddin Y1, Murat MN2, Hameed BH3. Bioresour Technol. 2016 Apr 19;214:248-252. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.04.083. [Epub ahead of print]
The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil.
3.Multivariable optimization of the micellar system for the ionic liquid-modified MEKC separation of phenolic acids.
Liu L1, Wu B1, Liu K1, Li CR1, Zhou X1, Li P2, Yang H3. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 Apr 21;126:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.04.027. [Epub ahead of print]
An ionic liquid (IL)-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was proposed for the separation and determination of eight phenolic acids. In order to increase separation efficiency and selectivity, the micelle system consisting of aqueous mixtures of ILs, Tween 20 and borate was optimized using a D-optimal design. A 16-run experimental plan was carried out. The results indicated that the addition of ILs in background electrolyte could significantly alter the electrophoretic behavior and improve the resolution of target analytes. By evaluating the electropherograms obtained, a satisfactory separation condition for all analytes was achieved in 10min with optimized buffer composed of 0.70% (w/w) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 8.1% (w/w) polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) and 10mM sodium borate at pH 9.2. Under these conditions, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r2>0.9969), and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 94.