1.Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Survival Effect of Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF) in a d-Galactose-Induced Aging Heart.
Chang YM1,2,3, Chang HH4,5,6, Kuo WW7, Lin HJ8,9, Yeh YL10,11, Padma Viswanadha V12, Tsai CC13,14, Chen RJ15, Chang HN16, Huang CY17,18,19. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 29;17(4). pii: E466. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040466.
Aging, a natural biological/physiological phenomenon, is accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and identified by a progressive decrease in physiological function. Several studies have shown a positive relationship between aging and chronic heart failure (HF). Cardiac apoptosis was found in age-related diseases. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on cardiac anti-apoptosis and pro-survival. Male eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were segregated into five groups: normal control group (NC), d-Galactose-Induced aging group (Aging), and AOF of 50 (AL (AOF low)), 100 (AM (AOF medium)), 150 (AH (AOF high)) mg/kg/day. After eight weeks, hearts were measured by an Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) stain, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-assays and Western blotting. The experimental results show that the cardiomyocyte apoptotic pathway protein expression increased in the d-Galactose-Induced aging groups, with dose-dependent inhibition in the AOF treatment group (AL, AM, and AH).
2.Soluble Human Intestinal Lactoferrin Receptor: Ca(2+)-Dependent Binding to Sepharose-Based Matrices.
Oshima Y1, Seki K, Shibuya M, Naka Y, Yokoyama T, Sato A. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39(3):435-9. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b15-00643.
A soluble form of human intestinal lactoferrin receptor (shLFR) is identical to human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1), a galactofuranose-binding protein that acts as a host defense against invading pathogenic microorganisms. We found that recombinant shLFR, expressed in mammalian cells (CHO DG44, COS-1, and RK13), binds tightly to Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (FF)-based matrices in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This binding of shLFR to Sepharose 4 FF-based matrices was inhibited by excess D-galactose, but not by D-glucose, suggesting that shLFR recognizes repeating units of α-1,6-linked D-galactose in Sepharose 4 FF. Furthermore, shLFR could bind to both Sepharose 4B- and Sepharose 6B-based matrices that were not crosslinked in a similar manner as to Sepharose 4 FF-based matrices. Therefore, shLFR (hITLN-1) binds to Sepharose-based matrices in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. This binding property is most likely related to the ability, as host defense lectins, to recognize sepharose (agarobiose)-like structures present on the surface of invading pathogenic microorganisms.
3.DFT/PCM theoretical study of the conversion of methyl 4-O-methyl-α-d-galactopyranoside 6-sulfate and its 2-sulfated derivative into their 3,6-anhydro counterparts.
Cosenza VA1, Navarro DA1, Stortz CA2. Carbohydr Res. 2016 May 13;426:15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.03.014. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
Modeling of the conversion of methyl 4-O-methyl-α-d-galactopyranoside 6-sulfate (2) and 2,6-disulfate (1) into methyl 3,6-anhydro-4-O-methyl-α-d-galactopyranoside (4) and its 2-sulfate (3), respectively (Scheme 1) has been carried out using DFT at the M06-2X/6-311 + G(d,p)//M06-2X/6-31 + G(d,p) level with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) in water. The three steps necessary for the alkaline transformation of 6-sulfated (and 2,6-disulfated) galactose units into 3,6-anhydro derivatives were evaluated. The final substitution step appears to be the rate limiting, involving an activation energy of ca. 23 kcal/mol. The other two steps (deprotonation and chair inversion) combined involve lower activation energies (9-12 kcal/mol). Comparison of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions suggest that if the deprotonation step precedes the chair inversion, the reaction should be faster for both compounds. No major differences in reaction rate can be theoretically predicted to be caused by the presence of sulfate on O-2, although one experimental result suggested that O-2 sulfation should increase the reaction rate.
4.The antioxidant effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. shoot in d-galactose induced mice aging model and in vitro.
Lei L1, Ou L2, Yu X3. J Chin Med Assoc. 2016 Apr;79(4):205-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2015.06.023. Epub 2016 Feb 28.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of plant components and their extracts have been shown to have beneficial health effects in humans. We aimed to explore the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. shoot in vivo and in vitro.